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Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails ( Bellamya aeruginosa ) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China

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ABSTRACT

Taihu Lake area is one of the densest metropolitan areas in the world including diverse industrial activity. In the present study, the snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediment were collected from the Taihu Lake area to investigate the contamination status, congener pattern, spatial distribution, and bioaccumulation effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The samples underwent liquid extraction, lipid removal by sulfuric acid, and acidic silica gel column, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentration of ∑22PCBs ranged between 90 and 680 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and between 0.018 and 0.82 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. Concentration of ∑24PBDEs varied from 25 to 200 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and from 0.62 to 67 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs observed were in the medium to low range compared with other studies in the world. CB-153 was the predominant PCB congener in both snails and sediments whereas BDE-209 showed a low bioavailability in the snails, even if it contributed up to 70% of ∑24PBDEs in the sediments. The spatial distribution showed that the highest concentration of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in samples from Zhushan Lake. East Taihu Lake and Dianshan Lake showed lower concentration of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sampling sites. Biota-sediment accumulation was found between snails and sediments of most of PCB and PBDE congeners except for the highly brominated BDEs (i.e., BDE-209). Therefore, sediment is suggested to be an appropriate matrix to monitor BDE-209 while aquatic species such as the snail could be good for monitoring of PCBs and lower brominated BDE congeners. No significant correlation (Spearman correlation test, two-tailed) of CB-153 (r = 0.54, p = 0.27) or BDE-47 (r = 0.60, p = 0.21) was found between snails and sediments.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-017-8467-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Spatial distribution of the sum of 22 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑22PCBs) and the sum of 24 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑24PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) (left) and sediments (right) from the coastal area of Taihu Lake
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Fig1: Spatial distribution of the sum of 22 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑22PCBs) and the sum of 24 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑24PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) (left) and sediments (right) from the coastal area of Taihu Lake

Mentions: Snail and sediment samples were collected from the Taihu Lake area, located in the Yangzte River Delta. The sampling sites were located in Taihu Lake (the eastern (L1), western (L2 and L3), and northern parts (L4–L6)) and in Dianshan Lake (L7) (Fig. 1). All sampling took place in May 2014 and detailed descriptions of the sampling sites are given in Table S1. One sediment pool and two snail pools (one female and one male) from each location were used for chemical analysis. The sediment pools were prepared from equal weights of five subsamples from each sampling site. Snails (B. aeruginosa) were sampled together with 10 L of lake water from the same locations as the sediments. The snails were immediately transported to the laboratory where an air pump was placed in the lake water for 24 h for gut purging. Males and females were separated by comparing their tentacles. The males have a vault-shaped, stubby right tentacle whereas females have a pair of uniform tentacles (Ma et al. 2010). Each pooled snail sample consisted of the soft tissue of five individual snails. All samples were stored at −20 °C prior to chemical analysis.Fig. 1


Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails ( Bellamya aeruginosa ) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China
Spatial distribution of the sum of 22 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑22PCBs) and the sum of 24 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑24PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) (left) and sediments (right) from the coastal area of Taihu Lake
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383689&req=5

Fig1: Spatial distribution of the sum of 22 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (∑22PCBs) and the sum of 24 congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑24PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) (left) and sediments (right) from the coastal area of Taihu Lake
Mentions: Snail and sediment samples were collected from the Taihu Lake area, located in the Yangzte River Delta. The sampling sites were located in Taihu Lake (the eastern (L1), western (L2 and L3), and northern parts (L4–L6)) and in Dianshan Lake (L7) (Fig. 1). All sampling took place in May 2014 and detailed descriptions of the sampling sites are given in Table S1. One sediment pool and two snail pools (one female and one male) from each location were used for chemical analysis. The sediment pools were prepared from equal weights of five subsamples from each sampling site. Snails (B. aeruginosa) were sampled together with 10 L of lake water from the same locations as the sediments. The snails were immediately transported to the laboratory where an air pump was placed in the lake water for 24 h for gut purging. Males and females were separated by comparing their tentacles. The males have a vault-shaped, stubby right tentacle whereas females have a pair of uniform tentacles (Ma et al. 2010). Each pooled snail sample consisted of the soft tissue of five individual snails. All samples were stored at −20 °C prior to chemical analysis.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Taihu Lake area is one of the densest metropolitan areas in the world including diverse industrial activity. In the present study, the snail (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediment were collected from the Taihu Lake area to investigate the contamination status, congener pattern, spatial distribution, and bioaccumulation effect of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The samples underwent liquid extraction, lipid removal by sulfuric acid, and acidic silica gel column, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Concentration of ∑22PCBs ranged between 90 and 680 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and between 0.018 and 0.82 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. Concentration of ∑24PBDEs varied from 25 to 200 ng g−1 lipid weight in the snails and from 0.62 to 67 ng g−1 dry weight in the sediments. The levels of PCBs and PBDEs observed were in the medium to low range compared with other studies in the world. CB-153 was the predominant PCB congener in both snails and sediments whereas BDE-209 showed a low bioavailability in the snails, even if it contributed up to 70% of ∑24PBDEs in the sediments. The spatial distribution showed that the highest concentration of PCBs and PBDEs were detected in samples from Zhushan Lake. East Taihu Lake and Dianshan Lake showed lower concentration of PCBs and PBDEs than the other sampling sites. Biota-sediment accumulation was found between snails and sediments of most of PCB and PBDE congeners except for the highly brominated BDEs (i.e., BDE-209). Therefore, sediment is suggested to be an appropriate matrix to monitor BDE-209 while aquatic species such as the snail could be good for monitoring of PCBs and lower brominated BDE congeners. No significant correlation (Spearman correlation test, two-tailed) of CB-153 (r = 0.54, p = 0.27) or BDE-47 (r = 0.60, p = 0.21) was found between snails and sediments.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11356-017-8467-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.