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Apolipophorin-III Acts as a Positive Regulator of Plasmodium Development in Anopheles stephensi

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Apolipophorin III (ApoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune responses of insects. Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles stephensi Apolipophorin-III (AsApoLp-III) gene. This gene consists of 679 nucleotides arranged into two exons of 45 and 540 bp that give an ORF encoding 194 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 19 amino acid residues, the 175-residues in mature AsApoLp-III protein has a calculated molecular mass of 22 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the divergence of mosquitoes (Order Diptera) ApoLp-III from their counterparts in moths (Order: Lepidoptera). Also, it revealed a close relatedness of AsApoLp-III to ApoLp-III of An. gambiae. AsApoLp-III mRNA expression is strongly induced in Plasmodium berghei infected mosquito midguts suggesting its crucial role in parasite development. AsApoLp-III silencing decreased P. berghei oocysts numbers by 7.7 fold against controls. These effects might be due to the interruption of AsApoLp-III mediated lipid delivery to the developing oocysts. In addition, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), an antiplasmodial gene, is also highly induced in AsApoLp-III silenced midguts suggesting that this gene acts like an agonist and protects Plasmodium against the mosquito immunity.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogenetic analysis of insect ApoLp-III family proteins. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Neighbor-joining algorithm. Sequences used for phylogenetic analysis are Ag, Anopheles gambiae (XP_003436408); Ad, Anopheles darlingi (ETN60814); Asi, Anopheles sinensis (ADN52300); Cq, Culex quinquefasciatus (XP_001849278); Aa, Aedes aegypti (XP_001659524); As, Anopheles stephensi (KU051523); Se, Spodoptera exigua (AEW24424.1); Gm, Galleria mellonella (CAA07363.1); Mc, Manduca sexta (P13276); Bm, Bombyx mori (AAQ17038.1); Hc, Hyphantria cunea (AAQ24031); Tc, Tribolium casteneum (EFA05722.1). The analysis revealed clear divergence of ApoLp-III of mosquito species from moths as indicated by the red color imaginary line. The numbers on the branches represent the % of 1000 bootstrap.
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Figure 4: Phylogenetic analysis of insect ApoLp-III family proteins. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Neighbor-joining algorithm. Sequences used for phylogenetic analysis are Ag, Anopheles gambiae (XP_003436408); Ad, Anopheles darlingi (ETN60814); Asi, Anopheles sinensis (ADN52300); Cq, Culex quinquefasciatus (XP_001849278); Aa, Aedes aegypti (XP_001659524); As, Anopheles stephensi (KU051523); Se, Spodoptera exigua (AEW24424.1); Gm, Galleria mellonella (CAA07363.1); Mc, Manduca sexta (P13276); Bm, Bombyx mori (AAQ17038.1); Hc, Hyphantria cunea (AAQ24031); Tc, Tribolium casteneum (EFA05722.1). The analysis revealed clear divergence of ApoLp-III of mosquito species from moths as indicated by the red color imaginary line. The numbers on the branches represent the % of 1000 bootstrap.

Mentions: Phylogenetic relationship among several lepidopteran and dipterans ApoLp-III proteins, divide them into two separate groups. It is noteworthy to mention that AsApoLp-III is exclusively grouped with mosquito ApoLp-III proteins. In addition, AsApoLp-III shares close relatedness with An. gambiae ApoLp-III (Figure 4). The reason of the clear divergence of this gene from their lepidopteran counterparts can be attributed to the adaptive differences in biology and feeding behavior seen within the insect orders.


Apolipophorin-III Acts as a Positive Regulator of Plasmodium Development in Anopheles stephensi
Phylogenetic analysis of insect ApoLp-III family proteins. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Neighbor-joining algorithm. Sequences used for phylogenetic analysis are Ag, Anopheles gambiae (XP_003436408); Ad, Anopheles darlingi (ETN60814); Asi, Anopheles sinensis (ADN52300); Cq, Culex quinquefasciatus (XP_001849278); Aa, Aedes aegypti (XP_001659524); As, Anopheles stephensi (KU051523); Se, Spodoptera exigua (AEW24424.1); Gm, Galleria mellonella (CAA07363.1); Mc, Manduca sexta (P13276); Bm, Bombyx mori (AAQ17038.1); Hc, Hyphantria cunea (AAQ24031); Tc, Tribolium casteneum (EFA05722.1). The analysis revealed clear divergence of ApoLp-III of mosquito species from moths as indicated by the red color imaginary line. The numbers on the branches represent the % of 1000 bootstrap.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Figure 4: Phylogenetic analysis of insect ApoLp-III family proteins. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using Neighbor-joining algorithm. Sequences used for phylogenetic analysis are Ag, Anopheles gambiae (XP_003436408); Ad, Anopheles darlingi (ETN60814); Asi, Anopheles sinensis (ADN52300); Cq, Culex quinquefasciatus (XP_001849278); Aa, Aedes aegypti (XP_001659524); As, Anopheles stephensi (KU051523); Se, Spodoptera exigua (AEW24424.1); Gm, Galleria mellonella (CAA07363.1); Mc, Manduca sexta (P13276); Bm, Bombyx mori (AAQ17038.1); Hc, Hyphantria cunea (AAQ24031); Tc, Tribolium casteneum (EFA05722.1). The analysis revealed clear divergence of ApoLp-III of mosquito species from moths as indicated by the red color imaginary line. The numbers on the branches represent the % of 1000 bootstrap.
Mentions: Phylogenetic relationship among several lepidopteran and dipterans ApoLp-III proteins, divide them into two separate groups. It is noteworthy to mention that AsApoLp-III is exclusively grouped with mosquito ApoLp-III proteins. In addition, AsApoLp-III shares close relatedness with An. gambiae ApoLp-III (Figure 4). The reason of the clear divergence of this gene from their lepidopteran counterparts can be attributed to the adaptive differences in biology and feeding behavior seen within the insect orders.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Apolipophorin III (ApoLp-III) is a well-known hemolymph protein having a functional role in lipid transport and immune responses of insects. Here we report the molecular and functional characterization of Anopheles stephensi Apolipophorin-III (AsApoLp-III) gene. This gene consists of 679 nucleotides arranged into two exons of 45 and 540 bp that give an ORF encoding 194 amino acid residues. Excluding a putative signal peptide of the first 19 amino acid residues, the 175-residues in mature AsApoLp-III protein has a calculated molecular mass of 22 kDa. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the divergence of mosquitoes (Order Diptera) ApoLp-III from their counterparts in moths (Order: Lepidoptera). Also, it revealed a close relatedness of AsApoLp-III to ApoLp-III of An. gambiae. AsApoLp-III mRNA expression is strongly induced in Plasmodium berghei infected mosquito midguts suggesting its crucial role in parasite development. AsApoLp-III silencing decreased P. berghei oocysts numbers by 7.7 fold against controls. These effects might be due to the interruption of AsApoLp-III mediated lipid delivery to the developing oocysts. In addition, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), an antiplasmodial gene, is also highly induced in AsApoLp-III silenced midguts suggesting that this gene acts like an agonist and protects Plasmodium against the mosquito immunity.

No MeSH data available.