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Studies on the exercise physiology of draft horses performed in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddyfields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the mostsuitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurancetest, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests. Oxygen consumption during draft exercise was measured by the Douglas bag method inorder to evaluate effects of draft workload under the conditions of different types of work (14- and 18-cm plow depths, cultivator, and tillage), tractionmethods (shoulder traction, shoulder-trunk traction, and chest-trunk traction), walking speeds (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 m/min), and depths of water (0, 18, 36,and 54 cm) on energy expenditure. The relationship between energy consumption and pulse rate during exercise was also evaluated. A study of a performance testfor draft horses was conducted to establish a new approach for evaluating draft horse performance using heart rate as an index. For this study, a beat meter formeasuring heart rate was developed, and experimental protocols were used to evaluate the relationship between heart rate and workload. Although the researchresults obtained from these studies do not have particular relevance in the current day, these studies are valuable for understanding the history of equineexercise physiology in Japan.

No MeSH data available.


Plowing on farm during the 1950s in Hokkaido. This photo was used through the courtesy of the Horse Museum at Obihiro Racecourse.
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fig_001: Plowing on farm during the 1950s in Hokkaido. This photo was used through the courtesy of the Horse Museum at Obihiro Racecourse.

Mentions: The total number of horses raised in Japan in the period just after World War II was about 1.5 million, and this number dramatically decreased during the earlypostwar period. The reasons for the rapid decrease were not simple, and it is thought that several factors might have influenced the decline in numbers. However, itis generally considered that the large shift in usage from warhorses to draft horses that occurred in the early stages of the postwar period was a major reason forthe rapid and large decrease in numbers. The trend toward decreasing numbers continued during the 1950s and 1960s, and the total number of horses had decreased tofewer than 400,000 by 1964. On the other hand, because draft horses were still used for working in paddy fields and on farms at that time (Fig. 1Fig. 1.


Studies on the exercise physiology of draft horses performed in Japan during the 1950s and 1960s
Plowing on farm during the 1950s in Hokkaido. This photo was used through the courtesy of the Horse Museum at Obihiro Racecourse.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383625&req=5

fig_001: Plowing on farm during the 1950s in Hokkaido. This photo was used through the courtesy of the Horse Museum at Obihiro Racecourse.
Mentions: The total number of horses raised in Japan in the period just after World War II was about 1.5 million, and this number dramatically decreased during the earlypostwar period. The reasons for the rapid decrease were not simple, and it is thought that several factors might have influenced the decline in numbers. However, itis generally considered that the large shift in usage from warhorses to draft horses that occurred in the early stages of the postwar period was a major reason forthe rapid and large decrease in numbers. The trend toward decreasing numbers continued during the 1950s and 1960s, and the total number of horses had decreased tofewer than 400,000 by 1964. On the other hand, because draft horses were still used for working in paddy fields and on farms at that time (Fig. 1Fig. 1.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although the total number of horses raised in Japan dramatically decreased after World War II, because draft horses were still used for farm work in paddyfields and on farms during the period of the 1950s and 1960s, a performance test for selecting better draft horses was needed. In order to determine the mostsuitable size of draft horses for Japanese farm conditions, the working power of horses weighing from 185 to 622 kg was evaluated by performing an endurancetest, several kinds of working power tests, and maximum pulling power tests. Oxygen consumption during draft exercise was measured by the Douglas bag method inorder to evaluate effects of draft workload under the conditions of different types of work (14- and 18-cm plow depths, cultivator, and tillage), tractionmethods (shoulder traction, shoulder-trunk traction, and chest-trunk traction), walking speeds (40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 m/min), and depths of water (0, 18, 36,and 54 cm) on energy expenditure. The relationship between energy consumption and pulse rate during exercise was also evaluated. A study of a performance testfor draft horses was conducted to establish a new approach for evaluating draft horse performance using heart rate as an index. For this study, a beat meter formeasuring heart rate was developed, and experimental protocols were used to evaluate the relationship between heart rate and workload. Although the researchresults obtained from these studies do not have particular relevance in the current day, these studies are valuable for understanding the history of equineexercise physiology in Japan.

No MeSH data available.