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Comparison of Objective and Subjective Changes Induced by Multiple-Pinhole Glasses and Single-Pinhole Glasses

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acuity (VA), depth of focus (DOF), and near point accommodation (NPA); tests for visual field (VF), contrast sensitivity (CS), stereopsis, and reading speed; and a survey of ocular discomfort after reading. Both types of pinhole glasses enlarged pupil diameter and improved VA, DOF, and NPA. However, CS, stereopsis, and VF parameters deteriorated. In comparison with SPH glasses, MPH glasses induced smaller pupil dilation (5.3 and 5.9 mm, P < 0.001) and showed better VF parameters with preserved peripheral VF. However, no significant difference was observed for VA, DOF, NPA, stereopsis, and CS. Reading speed using pinhole glasses was significantly slower than baseline; SPH glasses showed the slowest reading speed. Both types of glasses caused significant ocular discomfort after reading compared with baseline, and symptoms were worst with MPH glasses. In conclusion, both types of pinhole glasses had positive effects due to the pinhole effect; however, they had negative effects on VF, CS, stereopsis, reading speed, and ocular discomfort. In spite of the increased luminance and preserved peripheral VF with MPHs, these glasses caused more severe ocular discomfort than SPH glasses. This clinical trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02572544).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

VF test. (A) Normal without any device. (B) MD decreased to −18.55 dB and PSD increased to 13.62 dB with SPH glasses. VFI decreased to 72% and about 15° of the peripheral field area within the central 30° were blocked by SPH glasses. (C) MD decreased from −0.73 to −4.48 dB, and PSD increased from 2.10 to 2.48 dB with MPH glasses. VFI decreased from 100% to 98%. Irregular abnormalities of retinal sensitivity were observed at the peripheral field area.VF = visual field, MD = mean deviation, PSD = pattern standard deviation, VFI = visual field index, SPH = single-pinhole, MPH = multiple-pinhole.
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Figure 4: VF test. (A) Normal without any device. (B) MD decreased to −18.55 dB and PSD increased to 13.62 dB with SPH glasses. VFI decreased to 72% and about 15° of the peripheral field area within the central 30° were blocked by SPH glasses. (C) MD decreased from −0.73 to −4.48 dB, and PSD increased from 2.10 to 2.48 dB with MPH glasses. VFI decreased from 100% to 98%. Irregular abnormalities of retinal sensitivity were observed at the peripheral field area.VF = visual field, MD = mean deviation, PSD = pattern standard deviation, VFI = visual field index, SPH = single-pinhole, MPH = multiple-pinhole.

Mentions: VF parameters were worse with both types of pinhole glasses compared to baseline; the effect was more prominent with SPH glasses (Table 2, Fig. 4). Mean VF test time was prolonged and mean VFI, MD, and PSD markedly deteriorated when wearing SPH glasses compared to baseline (Table 2). About 15° of the peripheral area within the central 30° was completely blocked by SPH glasses (Fig. 4B).


Comparison of Objective and Subjective Changes Induced by Multiple-Pinhole Glasses and Single-Pinhole Glasses
VF test. (A) Normal without any device. (B) MD decreased to −18.55 dB and PSD increased to 13.62 dB with SPH glasses. VFI decreased to 72% and about 15° of the peripheral field area within the central 30° were blocked by SPH glasses. (C) MD decreased from −0.73 to −4.48 dB, and PSD increased from 2.10 to 2.48 dB with MPH glasses. VFI decreased from 100% to 98%. Irregular abnormalities of retinal sensitivity were observed at the peripheral field area.VF = visual field, MD = mean deviation, PSD = pattern standard deviation, VFI = visual field index, SPH = single-pinhole, MPH = multiple-pinhole.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383620&req=5

Figure 4: VF test. (A) Normal without any device. (B) MD decreased to −18.55 dB and PSD increased to 13.62 dB with SPH glasses. VFI decreased to 72% and about 15° of the peripheral field area within the central 30° were blocked by SPH glasses. (C) MD decreased from −0.73 to −4.48 dB, and PSD increased from 2.10 to 2.48 dB with MPH glasses. VFI decreased from 100% to 98%. Irregular abnormalities of retinal sensitivity were observed at the peripheral field area.VF = visual field, MD = mean deviation, PSD = pattern standard deviation, VFI = visual field index, SPH = single-pinhole, MPH = multiple-pinhole.
Mentions: VF parameters were worse with both types of pinhole glasses compared to baseline; the effect was more prominent with SPH glasses (Table 2, Fig. 4). Mean VF test time was prolonged and mean VFI, MD, and PSD markedly deteriorated when wearing SPH glasses compared to baseline (Table 2). About 15° of the peripheral area within the central 30° was completely blocked by SPH glasses (Fig. 4B).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Multiple-pinhole (MPH) glasses are currently sold in many countries with unproven advertisements; however, their objective and subjective effects have not been investigated. Therefore, to investigate the effects of MPH glasses excluding the single-pinhole (SPH) effect, we compared the visual functional changes, reading speed, and ocular discomfort after reading caused by MPH and SPH glasses. Healthy 36 participants with a mean age of 33.1 years underwent examinations of pupil size, visual acuity (VA), depth of focus (DOF), and near point accommodation (NPA); tests for visual field (VF), contrast sensitivity (CS), stereopsis, and reading speed; and a survey of ocular discomfort after reading. Both types of pinhole glasses enlarged pupil diameter and improved VA, DOF, and NPA. However, CS, stereopsis, and VF parameters deteriorated. In comparison with SPH glasses, MPH glasses induced smaller pupil dilation (5.3 and 5.9 mm, P < 0.001) and showed better VF parameters with preserved peripheral VF. However, no significant difference was observed for VA, DOF, NPA, stereopsis, and CS. Reading speed using pinhole glasses was significantly slower than baseline; SPH glasses showed the slowest reading speed. Both types of glasses caused significant ocular discomfort after reading compared with baseline, and symptoms were worst with MPH glasses. In conclusion, both types of pinhole glasses had positive effects due to the pinhole effect; however, they had negative effects on VF, CS, stereopsis, reading speed, and ocular discomfort. In spite of the increased luminance and preserved peripheral VF with MPHs, these glasses caused more severe ocular discomfort than SPH glasses. This clinical trial was registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02572544).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus