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Deficiencies of Circulating Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cells and Natural Killer T Cells in Patients with Multiple Trauma

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ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are known to play important roles in autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancers. However, little is known about the roles of these invariant T cells in multiple trauma. The purposes of this study were to examine MAIT and NKT cell levels in patients with multiple trauma and to investigate potential relationships between these cell levels and clinical parameters. The study cohort was composed of 14 patients with multiple trauma and 22 non-injured healthy controls (HCs). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell levels in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The severity of injury was categorised according to the scoring systems, such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell numbers were significantly lower in multiple trauma patients than in HCs. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating MAIT cell numbers were significantly correlated with age, APACHE II, SAPS II, ISS category, hemoglobin, and platelet count. NKT cell numbers in the peripheral blood were found to be significantly correlated with APACHE II, SAPS II, and ISS category. This study shows numerical deficiencies of circulating MAIT cells and NKT cells in multiple trauma. In addition, these invariant T cell deficiencies were found to be associated with disease severity. These findings provide important information for predicting the prognosis of multiple trauma.

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Reduced circulating MAIT cell numbers in the peripheral blood of multiple trauma patients. Freshly isolated PBMC from 22 HCs and 14 patients with multiple trauma were stained with APC-Alexa Fluor 750-conjugated anti-CD3, FITC-conjugated anti-TCR γδ, APC-conjugated anti-TCR Vα7.2 and PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD161 mAbs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Percentages of MAIT cells were calculated within a αβ T cell gate. (A) Representative MAIT cell percentages as determined by flow cytometry. (B) MAIT cell percentages among peripheral blood αβ T cells. (C) Absolute MAIT cell numbers (per microliter of blood). Symbols (●) represent individual subjects; horizontal bars show the median.MAIT = mucosal-associated invariant T, PBMC = peripheral blood mononuclear cell, HCs = healthy controls, APC = allophycocyanin, FITC = fluorescein isothiocyanate, TCR = T cell receptor, PE = phycoerythrin, mAbs = monoclonal antibodies, ANCOVA = analysis of covariance.*P < 0.01, †P < 0.001 by ANCOVA test.
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Figure 1: Reduced circulating MAIT cell numbers in the peripheral blood of multiple trauma patients. Freshly isolated PBMC from 22 HCs and 14 patients with multiple trauma were stained with APC-Alexa Fluor 750-conjugated anti-CD3, FITC-conjugated anti-TCR γδ, APC-conjugated anti-TCR Vα7.2 and PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD161 mAbs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Percentages of MAIT cells were calculated within a αβ T cell gate. (A) Representative MAIT cell percentages as determined by flow cytometry. (B) MAIT cell percentages among peripheral blood αβ T cells. (C) Absolute MAIT cell numbers (per microliter of blood). Symbols (●) represent individual subjects; horizontal bars show the median.MAIT = mucosal-associated invariant T, PBMC = peripheral blood mononuclear cell, HCs = healthy controls, APC = allophycocyanin, FITC = fluorescein isothiocyanate, TCR = T cell receptor, PE = phycoerythrin, mAbs = monoclonal antibodies, ANCOVA = analysis of covariance.*P < 0.01, †P < 0.001 by ANCOVA test.

Mentions: The percentages and absolute numbers of MAIT cells in the peripheral blood samples of the 14 patients with multiple trauma and the 22 HCs were determined by flow cytometry. All comparisons of percentages and absolute numbers of MAIT cells were performed by ANCOVA after adjusting for age and sex using the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, as described in the ‘Patients and Methods’ section. MAIT cells were defined as CD3+TCRγδ− cells expressing TCR Vα7.2 and CD161high (Fig. 1A). Percentages of circulating MAIT cells were significantly lower in patients than in HCs (median 1.12% vs. 2.58%; P < 0.010) (Fig. 1B). Absolute numbers of MAIT cells were calculated by multiplying MAIT cell fractions by CD3+γδ− T cell fractions and total lymphocyte numbers (per microliter of peripheral blood). Patients with multiple trauma had significantly lower absolute numbers of MAIT cells than HCs (median 2.03 vs. 17.27 cells/μL; P < 0.001) (Fig. 1C).


Deficiencies of Circulating Mucosal-associated Invariant T Cells and Natural Killer T Cells in Patients with Multiple Trauma
Reduced circulating MAIT cell numbers in the peripheral blood of multiple trauma patients. Freshly isolated PBMC from 22 HCs and 14 patients with multiple trauma were stained with APC-Alexa Fluor 750-conjugated anti-CD3, FITC-conjugated anti-TCR γδ, APC-conjugated anti-TCR Vα7.2 and PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD161 mAbs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Percentages of MAIT cells were calculated within a αβ T cell gate. (A) Representative MAIT cell percentages as determined by flow cytometry. (B) MAIT cell percentages among peripheral blood αβ T cells. (C) Absolute MAIT cell numbers (per microliter of blood). Symbols (●) represent individual subjects; horizontal bars show the median.MAIT = mucosal-associated invariant T, PBMC = peripheral blood mononuclear cell, HCs = healthy controls, APC = allophycocyanin, FITC = fluorescein isothiocyanate, TCR = T cell receptor, PE = phycoerythrin, mAbs = monoclonal antibodies, ANCOVA = analysis of covariance.*P < 0.01, †P < 0.001 by ANCOVA test.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383606&req=5

Figure 1: Reduced circulating MAIT cell numbers in the peripheral blood of multiple trauma patients. Freshly isolated PBMC from 22 HCs and 14 patients with multiple trauma were stained with APC-Alexa Fluor 750-conjugated anti-CD3, FITC-conjugated anti-TCR γδ, APC-conjugated anti-TCR Vα7.2 and PE-Cy5-conjugated anti-CD161 mAbs and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Percentages of MAIT cells were calculated within a αβ T cell gate. (A) Representative MAIT cell percentages as determined by flow cytometry. (B) MAIT cell percentages among peripheral blood αβ T cells. (C) Absolute MAIT cell numbers (per microliter of blood). Symbols (●) represent individual subjects; horizontal bars show the median.MAIT = mucosal-associated invariant T, PBMC = peripheral blood mononuclear cell, HCs = healthy controls, APC = allophycocyanin, FITC = fluorescein isothiocyanate, TCR = T cell receptor, PE = phycoerythrin, mAbs = monoclonal antibodies, ANCOVA = analysis of covariance.*P < 0.01, †P < 0.001 by ANCOVA test.
Mentions: The percentages and absolute numbers of MAIT cells in the peripheral blood samples of the 14 patients with multiple trauma and the 22 HCs were determined by flow cytometry. All comparisons of percentages and absolute numbers of MAIT cells were performed by ANCOVA after adjusting for age and sex using the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, as described in the ‘Patients and Methods’ section. MAIT cells were defined as CD3+TCRγδ− cells expressing TCR Vα7.2 and CD161high (Fig. 1A). Percentages of circulating MAIT cells were significantly lower in patients than in HCs (median 1.12% vs. 2.58%; P < 0.010) (Fig. 1B). Absolute numbers of MAIT cells were calculated by multiplying MAIT cell fractions by CD3+γδ− T cell fractions and total lymphocyte numbers (per microliter of peripheral blood). Patients with multiple trauma had significantly lower absolute numbers of MAIT cells than HCs (median 2.03 vs. 17.27 cells/μL; P < 0.001) (Fig. 1C).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells are known to play important roles in autoimmunity, infectious diseases and cancers. However, little is known about the roles of these invariant T cells in multiple trauma. The purposes of this study were to examine MAIT and NKT cell levels in patients with multiple trauma and to investigate potential relationships between these cell levels and clinical parameters. The study cohort was composed of 14 patients with multiple trauma and 22 non-injured healthy controls (HCs). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell levels in the peripheral blood were measured by flow cytometry. The severity of injury was categorised according to the scoring systems, such as Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II, and Injury Severity Score (ISS). Circulating MAIT and NKT cell numbers were significantly lower in multiple trauma patients than in HCs. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating MAIT cell numbers were significantly correlated with age, APACHE II, SAPS II, ISS category, hemoglobin, and platelet count. NKT cell numbers in the peripheral blood were found to be significantly correlated with APACHE II, SAPS II, and ISS category. This study shows numerical deficiencies of circulating MAIT cells and NKT cells in multiple trauma. In addition, these invariant T cell deficiencies were found to be associated with disease severity. These findings provide important information for predicting the prognosis of multiple trauma.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus