Limits...
Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.


Initial individual size (DBH), the light environments of the leafless (rPPFD‐winter) and leafy (rPPFD‐summer) seasons, and absolute growth rate (mm/year) among initial sex types (F, M, and H‐all) of sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type of E. japonica. Superscripts of c and n mean sex‐changed and non‐sex‐changed individuals, respectively. Different letters beside the bars indicate significant differences in the results of multiple comparisons in which family‐wise errors were adjusted using Tukey's method at p = .05
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383483&req=5

ece32745-fig-0003: Initial individual size (DBH), the light environments of the leafless (rPPFD‐winter) and leafy (rPPFD‐summer) seasons, and absolute growth rate (mm/year) among initial sex types (F, M, and H‐all) of sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type of E. japonica. Superscripts of c and n mean sex‐changed and non‐sex‐changed individuals, respectively. Different letters beside the bars indicate significant differences in the results of multiple comparisons in which family‐wise errors were adjusted using Tukey's method at p = .05

Mentions: Although individual size (DBH) (p = .36), light environments in leafless season (rPPFD‐winter) (p = .39), and growth rate (p = .38) did not differ between sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type, sex‐changed H‐all individuals had significantly higher rPPFD‐summer than non‐changed ones (p < .02; Figure 3). A significant sexual difference in individual size was also found (p < .001) and males were largest and females were smallest (Figure 3).


Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)
Initial individual size (DBH), the light environments of the leafless (rPPFD‐winter) and leafy (rPPFD‐summer) seasons, and absolute growth rate (mm/year) among initial sex types (F, M, and H‐all) of sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type of E. japonica. Superscripts of c and n mean sex‐changed and non‐sex‐changed individuals, respectively. Different letters beside the bars indicate significant differences in the results of multiple comparisons in which family‐wise errors were adjusted using Tukey's method at p = .05
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383483&req=5

ece32745-fig-0003: Initial individual size (DBH), the light environments of the leafless (rPPFD‐winter) and leafy (rPPFD‐summer) seasons, and absolute growth rate (mm/year) among initial sex types (F, M, and H‐all) of sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type of E. japonica. Superscripts of c and n mean sex‐changed and non‐sex‐changed individuals, respectively. Different letters beside the bars indicate significant differences in the results of multiple comparisons in which family‐wise errors were adjusted using Tukey's method at p = .05
Mentions: Although individual size (DBH) (p = .36), light environments in leafless season (rPPFD‐winter) (p = .39), and growth rate (p = .38) did not differ between sex‐changed and non‐changed individuals in each sexual type, sex‐changed H‐all individuals had significantly higher rPPFD‐summer than non‐changed ones (p < .02; Figure 3). A significant sexual difference in individual size was also found (p < .001) and males were largest and females were smallest (Figure 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5&nbsp;years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.