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Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)

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ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.


The ratio of six sexual types and non‐flowering in each year from 2010 to 2014 in E. japonica. The number of individuals is indicated above each bar. For the abbreviation of sexual types, see Figure 1
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ece32745-fig-0002: The ratio of six sexual types and non‐flowering in each year from 2010 to 2014 in E. japonica. The number of individuals is indicated above each bar. For the abbreviation of sexual types, see Figure 1

Mentions: The average proportions of the six sexual types in the period 2010–2014 were as follows: F, 33.2%; M, 30.1%; H, 5.1%; HF, 22.6%; HM, 4.0%; and HFM, 2.4%. The sex ratio in E. japonica did not significantly fluctuate from year to year or over the 5 years (Figure 2). Across this time there was no significant difference in the sex ratio between 2010 and 2014 (G = 9.45, p = .092; Figure 2). When the sex ratio was examined between 2010 and 2014 using only data for plots 2 and 3, where sex expression was observed in all 5 years, we found no difference in the sex ratio (G = 8.15, p = .145).


Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)
The ratio of six sexual types and non‐flowering in each year from 2010 to 2014 in E. japonica. The number of individuals is indicated above each bar. For the abbreviation of sexual types, see Figure 1
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383483&req=5

ece32745-fig-0002: The ratio of six sexual types and non‐flowering in each year from 2010 to 2014 in E. japonica. The number of individuals is indicated above each bar. For the abbreviation of sexual types, see Figure 1
Mentions: The average proportions of the six sexual types in the period 2010–2014 were as follows: F, 33.2%; M, 30.1%; H, 5.1%; HF, 22.6%; HM, 4.0%; and HFM, 2.4%. The sex ratio in E. japonica did not significantly fluctuate from year to year or over the 5 years (Figure 2). Across this time there was no significant difference in the sex ratio between 2010 and 2014 (G = 9.45, p = .092; Figure 2). When the sex ratio was examined between 2010 and 2014 using only data for plots 2 and 3, where sex expression was observed in all 5 years, we found no difference in the sex ratio (G = 8.15, p = .145).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.