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Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)

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ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The average and 95% confidence interval (in parentheses) estimated by calculating a transition probability matrix among the sexual types (F, M and H‐all) between previous and next years in E. japonica. F, female individuals with only pistillate flowers; M, male individuals bearing only staminate flowers; H‐all, all types of hermaphrodite individuals (H, HF, HM, and HFM; H, hermaphrodite individuals with only perfect flowers; HF, individuals bearing a mixture of perfect and pistillate flowers; HM, individuals bearing perfect and staminate flowers; HFM, individuals bearing a mixture of all three flower types)
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ece32745-fig-0001: The average and 95% confidence interval (in parentheses) estimated by calculating a transition probability matrix among the sexual types (F, M and H‐all) between previous and next years in E. japonica. F, female individuals with only pistillate flowers; M, male individuals bearing only staminate flowers; H‐all, all types of hermaphrodite individuals (H, HF, HM, and HFM; H, hermaphrodite individuals with only perfect flowers; HF, individuals bearing a mixture of perfect and pistillate flowers; HM, individuals bearing perfect and staminate flowers; HFM, individuals bearing a mixture of all three flower types)

Mentions: According to the transition probability matrix, sex changes from H‐all to F and from M to H‐all tended to occur more frequently than those from F to M and from M to F did, whereas the constant probability (F to F, M to M and H‐all to H‐all) was similar among the three sexual types (Figure 1). Compared to the observed transition matrix, the observed values of F to F (0.9524) and M to M (0.9320) were higher and marginally lower than the estimated values, respectively (Table 2, Figure 1).


Sex change in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica (Pentaphylacaceae)
The average and 95% confidence interval (in parentheses) estimated by calculating a transition probability matrix among the sexual types (F, M and H‐all) between previous and next years in E. japonica. F, female individuals with only pistillate flowers; M, male individuals bearing only staminate flowers; H‐all, all types of hermaphrodite individuals (H, HF, HM, and HFM; H, hermaphrodite individuals with only perfect flowers; HF, individuals bearing a mixture of perfect and pistillate flowers; HM, individuals bearing perfect and staminate flowers; HFM, individuals bearing a mixture of all three flower types)
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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ece32745-fig-0001: The average and 95% confidence interval (in parentheses) estimated by calculating a transition probability matrix among the sexual types (F, M and H‐all) between previous and next years in E. japonica. F, female individuals with only pistillate flowers; M, male individuals bearing only staminate flowers; H‐all, all types of hermaphrodite individuals (H, HF, HM, and HFM; H, hermaphrodite individuals with only perfect flowers; HF, individuals bearing a mixture of perfect and pistillate flowers; HM, individuals bearing perfect and staminate flowers; HFM, individuals bearing a mixture of all three flower types)
Mentions: According to the transition probability matrix, sex changes from H‐all to F and from M to H‐all tended to occur more frequently than those from F to M and from M to F did, whereas the constant probability (F to F, M to M and H‐all to H‐all) was similar among the three sexual types (Figure 1). Compared to the observed transition matrix, the observed values of F to F (0.9524) and M to M (0.9320) were higher and marginally lower than the estimated values, respectively (Table 2, Figure 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Sex change affects the sex ratios of plant populations and may play an essential role in the evolutionary shift of sexual systems. Sex change can be a strategy for increasing fitness over the lifetime of a plant, and plant size, environmental factors, and growth rate may affect sex change. We described frequent, repeated sex changes following various patterns in a subdioecious Eurya japonica population over five successive years. Of the individuals, 27.5% changed their sex at least once, and these changes were unidirectional or bidirectional. The sex ratio (females/males/all hermaphrodite types) did not fluctuate over the 5 years. In our study plots, although the current sex ratio among the sexes appears to be stable, the change in sex ratio may be slowly progressing toward increasing females and decreasing males. Sex was more likely to change with higher growth rates and more exposure to light throughout the year. Among individuals that changed sex, those that were less exposed to light in the leafy season and had less diameter growth tended to shift from hermaphrodite to a single sex. Therefore, sex change in E. japonica seemed to be explained by a response to the internal physiological condition of an individual mediated by intrinsic and abiotic environmental factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus