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Ecological application of biotic resistance to control the invasion of an invasive plant, Ageratina altissima

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ABSTRACT

Biotic resistance is the ability of species in a community to limit the invasion of other species. However, biotic resistance is not widely used to control invasive plants. Experimental, functional, and modeling approaches were combined to investigate the processes of invasion by Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot), a model invasive species in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) functional group identity would be a good predictor of biotic resistance to A. altissima, whereas a species identity effect would be redundant within a functional group, and (2) mixtures of species would be more resistant to invasion than monocultures. We classified 37 species of native plants into three functional groups based on seven functional traits. The classification of functional groups was based primarily on differences in life longevity and woodiness. A competition experiment was conducted based on an additive competition design with A. altissima and monocultures or mixtures of resident plants. As an indicator of biotic resistance, we calculated a relative competition index (RCIavg) based on the average performance of A. altissima in a competition treatment compared with that of the control where only seeds of A. altissima were sown. To further explain the effect of diversity, we tested several diversity–interaction models. In monoculture treatments, RCIavg of resident plants was significantly different among functional groups but not within each functional group. Fast‐growing annuals (FG1) had the highest RCIavg, suggesting priority effects (niche pre‐emption). RCIavg of resident plants was significantly greater in a mixture than in a monoculture. According to the diversity–interaction models, species interaction patterns in mixtures were best described by interactions between functional groups, which implied niche partitioning. Functional group identity and diversity of resident plant communities were good indicators of biotic resistance to invasion by introduced A. altissima, with the underlying mechanisms likely niche pre‐emption and niche partitioning. This method has most potential in assisted restoration contexts, where there is a desire to reintroduce natives or boost their population size due to some previous level of degradation.

No MeSH data available.


Results of the monoculture treatments. RCIavg: relative competition index of resident plant(s) as an indicator of biotic resistance (see Equation (1)). Each species was grouped by functional group 1, 2, or 3. The same letter indicates that means are not significantly different from one another (functional group). ns indicates no significant difference among species within each functional group. Error bar represents the standard error
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ece32799-fig-0002: Results of the monoculture treatments. RCIavg: relative competition index of resident plant(s) as an indicator of biotic resistance (see Equation (1)). Each species was grouped by functional group 1, 2, or 3. The same letter indicates that means are not significantly different from one another (functional group). ns indicates no significant difference among species within each functional group. Error bar represents the standard error

Mentions: In monoculture treatments, the relative competitive effect of resident plants on A. altissima was primarily related to their functional group identity, whereas the species identity effect remained redundant within each functional group (Figure 2). The relative competitive index (RCIavg) of the 12 resident plants on A. altissima was significantly different among the three FGs (F2,31 = 22.84, p < .001), but was not significantly different within each FG (FG1: F3,6 = 1.00, p = .4547; FG2: F3,6 = 4.07, p = .067; and FG3: F3,6 = 1.17, p = .3937). The highest RCIavg was for FG1 (annual plants), followed by FG2 and FG3 (mean RCIavg = 0.975, 0.710, and 0.196, respectively; Figure 2).


Ecological application of biotic resistance to control the invasion of an invasive plant, Ageratina altissima
Results of the monoculture treatments. RCIavg: relative competition index of resident plant(s) as an indicator of biotic resistance (see Equation (1)). Each species was grouped by functional group 1, 2, or 3. The same letter indicates that means are not significantly different from one another (functional group). ns indicates no significant difference among species within each functional group. Error bar represents the standard error
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ece32799-fig-0002: Results of the monoculture treatments. RCIavg: relative competition index of resident plant(s) as an indicator of biotic resistance (see Equation (1)). Each species was grouped by functional group 1, 2, or 3. The same letter indicates that means are not significantly different from one another (functional group). ns indicates no significant difference among species within each functional group. Error bar represents the standard error
Mentions: In monoculture treatments, the relative competitive effect of resident plants on A. altissima was primarily related to their functional group identity, whereas the species identity effect remained redundant within each functional group (Figure 2). The relative competitive index (RCIavg) of the 12 resident plants on A. altissima was significantly different among the three FGs (F2,31 = 22.84, p < .001), but was not significantly different within each FG (FG1: F3,6 = 1.00, p = .4547; FG2: F3,6 = 4.07, p = .067; and FG3: F3,6 = 1.17, p = .3937). The highest RCIavg was for FG1 (annual plants), followed by FG2 and FG3 (mean RCIavg = 0.975, 0.710, and 0.196, respectively; Figure 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Biotic resistance is the ability of species in a community to limit the invasion of other species. However, biotic resistance is not widely used to control invasive plants. Experimental, functional, and modeling approaches were combined to investigate the processes of invasion by Ageratina altissima (white snakeroot), a model invasive species in South Korea. We hypothesized that (1) functional group identity would be a good predictor of biotic resistance to A.&nbsp;altissima, whereas a species identity effect would be redundant within a functional group, and (2) mixtures of species would be more resistant to invasion than monocultures. We classified 37 species of native plants into three functional groups based on seven functional traits. The classification of functional groups was based primarily on differences in life longevity and woodiness. A competition experiment was conducted based on an additive competition design with A.&nbsp;altissima and monocultures or mixtures of resident plants. As an indicator of biotic resistance, we calculated a relative competition index (RCIavg) based on the average performance of A.&nbsp;altissima in a competition treatment compared with that of the control where only seeds of A.&nbsp;altissima were sown. To further explain the effect of diversity, we tested several diversity&ndash;interaction models. In monoculture treatments, RCIavg of resident plants was significantly different among functional groups but not within each functional group. Fast&#8208;growing annuals (FG1) had the highest RCIavg, suggesting priority effects (niche pre&#8208;emption). RCIavg of resident plants was significantly greater in a mixture than in a monoculture. According to the diversity&ndash;interaction models, species interaction patterns in mixtures were best described by interactions between functional groups, which implied niche partitioning. Functional group identity and diversity of resident plant communities were good indicators of biotic resistance to invasion by introduced A.&nbsp;altissima, with the underlying mechanisms likely niche pre&#8208;emption and niche partitioning. This method has most potential in assisted restoration contexts, where there is a desire to reintroduce natives or boost their population size due to some previous level of degradation.

No MeSH data available.