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Community assembly in Nothobranchius annual fishes: Nested patterns, environmental niche and biogeographic history

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The assembly of local communities from regional species pools is shaped by historical aspects of distribution, environmental conditions, and biotic interactions. We studied local community assembly patterns in African annual killifishes of the genus Nothobranchius (Cyprinodontiformes), investigating data from 168 communities across the entire range of regionally co‐existing species. Nothobranchius are small fishes associated with annually desiccating pools. We detected a nested pattern of local communities in one region (Southern Mozambique, with Nothobranchius furzeri as the core and dominant species), but no nestedness was found in the second region (Central Mozambique, with Nothobranchius orthonotus being the dominant species). A checkerboard pattern of local Nothobranchius community assembly was demonstrated in both regions. Multivariate environmental niche modeling revealed moderate differences in environmental niche occupancy between three monophyletic clades that largely co‐occurred geographically and greater differences between strictly allopatric species within the clades. Most variation among species was observed along an altitudinal gradient; N. furzeri and Nothobranchius kadleci were absent from coastal plains, Nothobranchius pienaari, Nothobranchius rachovii, and Nothobranchius krysanovi were associated with lower altitude and N. orthonotus was intermediate and geographically most widespread species. We discuss implications for ecological and evolutionary research in this taxon.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Distribution maps of three study clades and species co‚Äźexistence. The presence of (a) Nothobranchius furzeri (yellow) an Nothobranchius kadleci (dark red), (b) Nothobranchius orthonotus (violet), and (c) Nothobranchius pienaari (black), Nothobranchius rachovii (blue) and Nothobranchius krysanovi (red) populations at particular sites. Small empty points represent sampled sites where population of a given clade was absent. (d) A combined dataset illustrating geographic aspect of species co‚Äźoccurrence in local Nothobranchius communities, where sites with single, two and three co‚Äźexisting species are illustrated. An inset details the region with a parapatric distribution of N.¬†rachovii and N.¬†pienaari. The maps were created in R environment (R Core Team 2015) [packages sp (Bivand, Pebesma, & Gomez‚ÄźRubio, 2013), rgdal (Bivand, Keitt, & Rowlingson, 2016), maps (Becker, Wilks, Brownrigg, Minka, & Deckmyn, 2016) and GIStools (Brunsdon & Chen, 2014)]. The altitudinal gradient for Mozambique was downloaded from http://www.diva-gis.org/gdata
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ece32851-fig-0002: Distribution maps of three study clades and species co‚Äźexistence. The presence of (a) Nothobranchius furzeri (yellow) an Nothobranchius kadleci (dark red), (b) Nothobranchius orthonotus (violet), and (c) Nothobranchius pienaari (black), Nothobranchius rachovii (blue) and Nothobranchius krysanovi (red) populations at particular sites. Small empty points represent sampled sites where population of a given clade was absent. (d) A combined dataset illustrating geographic aspect of species co‚Äźoccurrence in local Nothobranchius communities, where sites with single, two and three co‚Äźexisting species are illustrated. An inset details the region with a parapatric distribution of N.¬†rachovii and N.¬†pienaari. The maps were created in R environment (R Core Team 2015) [packages sp (Bivand, Pebesma, & Gomez‚ÄźRubio, 2013), rgdal (Bivand, Keitt, & Rowlingson, 2016), maps (Becker, Wilks, Brownrigg, Minka, & Deckmyn, 2016) and GIStools (Brunsdon & Chen, 2014)]. The altitudinal gradient for Mozambique was downloaded from http://www.diva-gis.org/gdata

Mentions: Overall, 374 pools were sampled and 168 (45%) contained at least one Nothobranchius species. Three species co‚Äźoccurred in 35 pools, two species in 62 pools, and 71 pools contained a single species. Within each clade, the ranges of individual species were always allopatric. The ranges of N.¬†furzeri and N.¬†kadleci (F‚Äźclade) were separated by the River Save, with a single N.¬†kadleci population present south of the Save. Within the R‚Äźclade, the ranges of N.¬†krysanovi and N.¬†rachovii were strictly divided by the River Zambezi. Nothobranchius rachovii and N.¬†pienaari were parapatric in the region of the Pungwe and Buzi rivers estuaries, though they never co‚Äźoccurred in a single pool (Figure¬†2). Given that N.¬†furzeri and N.¬†kadleci widely co‚Äźexisted with N.¬†orthonotus and N.¬†pienaari across most of their distribution, we partitioned the study area into N.¬†furzeri (i.e., Southern Mozambique) and N.¬†kadleci (i.e., Central Mozambique) ranges in the following quantitative analyses.


Community assembly in Nothobranchius annual fishes: Nested patterns, environmental niche and biogeographic history
Distribution maps of three study clades and species co‚Äźexistence. The presence of (a) Nothobranchius furzeri (yellow) an Nothobranchius kadleci (dark red), (b) Nothobranchius orthonotus (violet), and (c) Nothobranchius pienaari (black), Nothobranchius rachovii (blue) and Nothobranchius krysanovi (red) populations at particular sites. Small empty points represent sampled sites where population of a given clade was absent. (d) A combined dataset illustrating geographic aspect of species co‚Äźoccurrence in local Nothobranchius communities, where sites with single, two and three co‚Äźexisting species are illustrated. An inset details the region with a parapatric distribution of N.¬†rachovii and N.¬†pienaari. The maps were created in R environment (R Core Team 2015) [packages sp (Bivand, Pebesma, & Gomez‚ÄźRubio, 2013), rgdal (Bivand, Keitt, & Rowlingson, 2016), maps (Becker, Wilks, Brownrigg, Minka, & Deckmyn, 2016) and GIStools (Brunsdon & Chen, 2014)]. The altitudinal gradient for Mozambique was downloaded from http://www.diva-gis.org/gdata
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383470&req=5

ece32851-fig-0002: Distribution maps of three study clades and species co‚Äźexistence. The presence of (a) Nothobranchius furzeri (yellow) an Nothobranchius kadleci (dark red), (b) Nothobranchius orthonotus (violet), and (c) Nothobranchius pienaari (black), Nothobranchius rachovii (blue) and Nothobranchius krysanovi (red) populations at particular sites. Small empty points represent sampled sites where population of a given clade was absent. (d) A combined dataset illustrating geographic aspect of species co‚Äźoccurrence in local Nothobranchius communities, where sites with single, two and three co‚Äźexisting species are illustrated. An inset details the region with a parapatric distribution of N.¬†rachovii and N.¬†pienaari. The maps were created in R environment (R Core Team 2015) [packages sp (Bivand, Pebesma, & Gomez‚ÄźRubio, 2013), rgdal (Bivand, Keitt, & Rowlingson, 2016), maps (Becker, Wilks, Brownrigg, Minka, & Deckmyn, 2016) and GIStools (Brunsdon & Chen, 2014)]. The altitudinal gradient for Mozambique was downloaded from http://www.diva-gis.org/gdata
Mentions: Overall, 374 pools were sampled and 168 (45%) contained at least one Nothobranchius species. Three species co‚Äźoccurred in 35 pools, two species in 62 pools, and 71 pools contained a single species. Within each clade, the ranges of individual species were always allopatric. The ranges of N.¬†furzeri and N.¬†kadleci (F‚Äźclade) were separated by the River Save, with a single N.¬†kadleci population present south of the Save. Within the R‚Äźclade, the ranges of N.¬†krysanovi and N.¬†rachovii were strictly divided by the River Zambezi. Nothobranchius rachovii and N.¬†pienaari were parapatric in the region of the Pungwe and Buzi rivers estuaries, though they never co‚Äźoccurred in a single pool (Figure¬†2). Given that N.¬†furzeri and N.¬†kadleci widely co‚Äźexisted with N.¬†orthonotus and N.¬†pienaari across most of their distribution, we partitioned the study area into N.¬†furzeri (i.e., Southern Mozambique) and N.¬†kadleci (i.e., Central Mozambique) ranges in the following quantitative analyses.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The assembly of local communities from regional species pools is shaped by historical aspects of distribution, environmental conditions, and biotic interactions. We studied local community assembly patterns in African annual killifishes of the genus Nothobranchius (Cyprinodontiformes), investigating data from 168 communities across the entire range of regionally co‐existing species. Nothobranchius are small fishes associated with annually desiccating pools. We detected a nested pattern of local communities in one region (Southern Mozambique, with Nothobranchius furzeri as the core and dominant species), but no nestedness was found in the second region (Central Mozambique, with Nothobranchius orthonotus being the dominant species). A checkerboard pattern of local Nothobranchius community assembly was demonstrated in both regions. Multivariate environmental niche modeling revealed moderate differences in environmental niche occupancy between three monophyletic clades that largely co‐occurred geographically and greater differences between strictly allopatric species within the clades. Most variation among species was observed along an altitudinal gradient; N. furzeri and Nothobranchius kadleci were absent from coastal plains, Nothobranchius pienaari, Nothobranchius rachovii, and Nothobranchius krysanovi were associated with lower altitude and N. orthonotus was intermediate and geographically most widespread species. We discuss implications for ecological and evolutionary research in this taxon.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus