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Natal origin affects host preference and larval performance relationships in a tritrophic system

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Many insects face the challenge to select oviposition sites in heterogeneous environments where biotic and abiotic factors can change over time. One way to deal with this complexity is to use sensory experiences made during developmental stages to locate similar habitats or hosts in which larval development can be maximized. While various studies have investigated oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in insects, they have largely overlooked that sensory experiences made during the larval stage can affect such relationships. We addressed this issue by determining the role of natal experience on oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in a tritrophic system consisting of Galerucella sagittariae, feeding on the two host plants Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora, and its larval parasitoid Asecodes lucens. We firstly determined whether differences in host‐derived olfactory information could lead to divergent host selection, and secondly, whether host preference could result in higher larval performance based on the natal origin of the insects. Our results showed that the natal origin and the quality of the current host are both important aspects in oviposition preference and larval performance relationships. While we found a positive relationship between preference and performance for natal Lysimachia beetles, natal Potentilla larvae showed no such relationship and developed better on L. thyrsiflora. Additionally, the host selection by the parasitoid was mainly affected by the natal origin, while its performance was higher on Lysimachia larvae. With this study, we showed that the relationship between oviposition preference and larval performance depends on the interplay between the natal origin of the female and the quality of the current host. However, without incorporating the full tritrophic context of these interactions, their implication in insect fitness and potential adaptation cannot be fully understood.

No MeSH data available.


Conceptual diagram illustrating the tritrophic interaction. For both Galerucella sagittariae (solid lines) and Asecodes lucens (dashed lines), we collected adults originating from Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora (a—section 2.2). The behavioral components that were tested are as follows: (b—section 2.3) the olfactory preferences of G. sagittariae for both host plants; (c—section 2.4) antennal responses of G. sagittariae to headspace volatiles (gray odor plumes) of both host plants; (d—section 2.5) the oviposition preference of G. sagittariae on both host plants; (e—section 2.6) the performance of G. sagittariae larvae on both host plant species; (f—section 2.7) the olfactory preferences of A. lucens to larval‐ and host plant‐derived volatiles; (g—section 2.8) the performance of A. lucens on host larvae from both host plants. For both the preference and performance relationship of G. sagittariae and A. lucens, we performed a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were used as factors, but for simplicity we did not include all interactions in the diagram
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ece32826-fig-0001: Conceptual diagram illustrating the tritrophic interaction. For both Galerucella sagittariae (solid lines) and Asecodes lucens (dashed lines), we collected adults originating from Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora (a—section 2.2). The behavioral components that were tested are as follows: (b—section 2.3) the olfactory preferences of G. sagittariae for both host plants; (c—section 2.4) antennal responses of G. sagittariae to headspace volatiles (gray odor plumes) of both host plants; (d—section 2.5) the oviposition preference of G. sagittariae on both host plants; (e—section 2.6) the performance of G. sagittariae larvae on both host plant species; (f—section 2.7) the olfactory preferences of A. lucens to larval‐ and host plant‐derived volatiles; (g—section 2.8) the performance of A. lucens on host larvae from both host plants. For both the preference and performance relationship of G. sagittariae and A. lucens, we performed a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were used as factors, but for simplicity we did not include all interactions in the diagram

Mentions: We used a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were included as factors to explore preference and performance relationships in the tritrophic system (Figure 1a). We firstly used laboratory experiments in which G. sagittariae of the two natal origins were allowed to select their preferred hosts exclusively on olfactory information (Figure 1b). In order to better understand the potential cues underlying the selective behavior, we combined these experiments with a quantification of volatile compounds and electrophysiological responses (Figure 1c). Subsequently, we conducted an oviposition experiment where adult G. sagittariae could also use other sensory cues for host selection (Figure 1d), and quantified the growth rate and final pupae size of the beetle larvae when feeding on the two host plants (Figure 1e). Finally, we tested whether A. lucens of both natal origins were able to select their preferred hosts exclusively based on olfactory information (Figure 1f), and determined whether the combination of host larvae and either of the two host plants affects the development of A. lucens offspring (Figure 1g). Using this setup, we thus determined the influence of natal origin on oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in tritrophic interactions.


Natal origin affects host preference and larval performance relationships in a tritrophic system
Conceptual diagram illustrating the tritrophic interaction. For both Galerucella sagittariae (solid lines) and Asecodes lucens (dashed lines), we collected adults originating from Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora (a—section 2.2). The behavioral components that were tested are as follows: (b—section 2.3) the olfactory preferences of G. sagittariae for both host plants; (c—section 2.4) antennal responses of G. sagittariae to headspace volatiles (gray odor plumes) of both host plants; (d—section 2.5) the oviposition preference of G. sagittariae on both host plants; (e—section 2.6) the performance of G. sagittariae larvae on both host plant species; (f—section 2.7) the olfactory preferences of A. lucens to larval‐ and host plant‐derived volatiles; (g—section 2.8) the performance of A. lucens on host larvae from both host plants. For both the preference and performance relationship of G. sagittariae and A. lucens, we performed a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were used as factors, but for simplicity we did not include all interactions in the diagram
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ece32826-fig-0001: Conceptual diagram illustrating the tritrophic interaction. For both Galerucella sagittariae (solid lines) and Asecodes lucens (dashed lines), we collected adults originating from Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora (a—section 2.2). The behavioral components that were tested are as follows: (b—section 2.3) the olfactory preferences of G. sagittariae for both host plants; (c—section 2.4) antennal responses of G. sagittariae to headspace volatiles (gray odor plumes) of both host plants; (d—section 2.5) the oviposition preference of G. sagittariae on both host plants; (e—section 2.6) the performance of G. sagittariae larvae on both host plant species; (f—section 2.7) the olfactory preferences of A. lucens to larval‐ and host plant‐derived volatiles; (g—section 2.8) the performance of A. lucens on host larvae from both host plants. For both the preference and performance relationship of G. sagittariae and A. lucens, we performed a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were used as factors, but for simplicity we did not include all interactions in the diagram
Mentions: We used a full factorial design in which both natal origin and current host were included as factors to explore preference and performance relationships in the tritrophic system (Figure 1a). We firstly used laboratory experiments in which G. sagittariae of the two natal origins were allowed to select their preferred hosts exclusively on olfactory information (Figure 1b). In order to better understand the potential cues underlying the selective behavior, we combined these experiments with a quantification of volatile compounds and electrophysiological responses (Figure 1c). Subsequently, we conducted an oviposition experiment where adult G. sagittariae could also use other sensory cues for host selection (Figure 1d), and quantified the growth rate and final pupae size of the beetle larvae when feeding on the two host plants (Figure 1e). Finally, we tested whether A. lucens of both natal origins were able to select their preferred hosts exclusively based on olfactory information (Figure 1f), and determined whether the combination of host larvae and either of the two host plants affects the development of A. lucens offspring (Figure 1g). Using this setup, we thus determined the influence of natal origin on oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in tritrophic interactions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Many insects face the challenge to select oviposition sites in heterogeneous environments where biotic and abiotic factors can change over time. One way to deal with this complexity is to use sensory experiences made during developmental stages to locate similar habitats or hosts in which larval development can be maximized. While various studies have investigated oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in insects, they have largely overlooked that sensory experiences made during the larval stage can affect such relationships. We addressed this issue by determining the role of natal experience on oviposition preference and larval performance relationships in a tritrophic system consisting of Galerucella sagittariae, feeding on the two host plants Potentilla palustris and Lysimachia thyrsiflora, and its larval parasitoid Asecodes lucens. We firstly determined whether differences in host‐derived olfactory information could lead to divergent host selection, and secondly, whether host preference could result in higher larval performance based on the natal origin of the insects. Our results showed that the natal origin and the quality of the current host are both important aspects in oviposition preference and larval performance relationships. While we found a positive relationship between preference and performance for natal Lysimachia beetles, natal Potentilla larvae showed no such relationship and developed better on L. thyrsiflora. Additionally, the host selection by the parasitoid was mainly affected by the natal origin, while its performance was higher on Lysimachia larvae. With this study, we showed that the relationship between oviposition preference and larval performance depends on the interplay between the natal origin of the female and the quality of the current host. However, without incorporating the full tritrophic context of these interactions, their implication in insect fitness and potential adaptation cannot be fully understood.

No MeSH data available.