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Revisiting the phylogeny of Wolbachia in Collembola

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ABSTRACT

The endosymbiont Wolbachia has been detected in a few parthenogenetic collembolans sampled in Europe and America, including three species of Poduromorpha, two species of Entomobryomorpha, and two species of Neelipleona. Based on 16S rRNA and ftsZ gene sequences, most of the Wolbachia infecting parthenogenetic collembolans were characterized as members of supergroup E and showed concordant phylogeny with their hosts. However, the two neelipleonan symbionts form another unique group, indicating that Wolbachia has infected parthenogenetic collembolans multiple times. In this study, five parthenogenetic collembolan species were identified as hosts of Wolbachia, and four new Wolbachia strains were reported for four collembolan species sampled in China, respectively, including a neelipleonan strain from Megalothorax incertus (wMinc). Our results demonstrated that the Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system is superior to the 16S rRNA + ftsZ approach for phylogenetic analyses of collembolan Wolbachia. The MLST system assigned these Wolbachia of parthenogenetic collembolans to supergroup E as a unique clade, which included wMinc, supporting the monophyletic origin of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic collembolan species. Moreover, our data suggested supergroup E as one of the most divergent lineages in Wolbachia and revealed the discrepancy between the phylogenies of Wolbachia from parthenogenetic collembolans and their hosts, which may result from the high level of genetic divergence between collembolan Wolbachia, in association with the geographic differentiation of their hosts, or the possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different collembolan species.

No MeSH data available.


Comparison between the phylogenies of the Wolbachia stains recovered in this study and their parthenogenetic collembolan hosts. The phylogeny of collembolan Wolbachia (left) was derived from the MLST tree (Figure 1). The phylogenetic relationships among host species (right) were examined with three outgroups (the proturan species Baculentulus tianmushanensis and two dipluran species, Lepidocampa weberi and Octostigma sinensis). The same tree topology was obtained from Bayesian and ML inferences based on the concatenated dataset of mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Collembolans are color‐coded taxonomically at the level of orders
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ece32738-fig-0002: Comparison between the phylogenies of the Wolbachia stains recovered in this study and their parthenogenetic collembolan hosts. The phylogeny of collembolan Wolbachia (left) was derived from the MLST tree (Figure 1). The phylogenetic relationships among host species (right) were examined with three outgroups (the proturan species Baculentulus tianmushanensis and two dipluran species, Lepidocampa weberi and Octostigma sinensis). The same tree topology was obtained from Bayesian and ML inferences based on the concatenated dataset of mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Collembolans are color‐coded taxonomically at the level of orders

Mentions: Although supergroup E was distinct and monophyletic, its members did not cluster with their hosts taxonomically. In the concatenated MLST phylogeny (Figure 2), wThou infecting T. houtanensis (Poduromorpha) was the sister‐group of wFpar infecting Fd. parvulus (Entomobryomorpha), instead of wFcan infecting F. candida (DK) (Entomobryomorpha). Moreover, wMyos infecting Mes. yosii (Poduromorpha) was the sister‐group to all other strains in clade E. This divergence was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes of the hosts, using proturan and dipluran species as outgroups (Figure 2). The combined dataset of these genes (2,730 nt and 8 taxa, including 654 nt for mtCOI, 1,661 nt for 18S rRNA, and 415 nt for 28S rRNA) clustered perfectly for the five host species according to their taxonomic status at the order level. In other words, species from the orders Poduromorpha (F. candida (DK) and Fd. parvulus) and Entomobryomorpha (Mes. yosii and T. houtanensis) were grouped separately in the tree (Figure 2).


Revisiting the phylogeny of Wolbachia in Collembola
Comparison between the phylogenies of the Wolbachia stains recovered in this study and their parthenogenetic collembolan hosts. The phylogeny of collembolan Wolbachia (left) was derived from the MLST tree (Figure 1). The phylogenetic relationships among host species (right) were examined with three outgroups (the proturan species Baculentulus tianmushanensis and two dipluran species, Lepidocampa weberi and Octostigma sinensis). The same tree topology was obtained from Bayesian and ML inferences based on the concatenated dataset of mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Collembolans are color‐coded taxonomically at the level of orders
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383468&req=5

ece32738-fig-0002: Comparison between the phylogenies of the Wolbachia stains recovered in this study and their parthenogenetic collembolan hosts. The phylogeny of collembolan Wolbachia (left) was derived from the MLST tree (Figure 1). The phylogenetic relationships among host species (right) were examined with three outgroups (the proturan species Baculentulus tianmushanensis and two dipluran species, Lepidocampa weberi and Octostigma sinensis). The same tree topology was obtained from Bayesian and ML inferences based on the concatenated dataset of mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA gene sequences. Collembolans are color‐coded taxonomically at the level of orders
Mentions: Although supergroup E was distinct and monophyletic, its members did not cluster with their hosts taxonomically. In the concatenated MLST phylogeny (Figure 2), wThou infecting T. houtanensis (Poduromorpha) was the sister‐group of wFpar infecting Fd. parvulus (Entomobryomorpha), instead of wFcan infecting F. candida (DK) (Entomobryomorpha). Moreover, wMyos infecting Mes. yosii (Poduromorpha) was the sister‐group to all other strains in clade E. This divergence was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis of the mtCOI, 18S rRNA, and 28S rRNA genes of the hosts, using proturan and dipluran species as outgroups (Figure 2). The combined dataset of these genes (2,730 nt and 8 taxa, including 654 nt for mtCOI, 1,661 nt for 18S rRNA, and 415 nt for 28S rRNA) clustered perfectly for the five host species according to their taxonomic status at the order level. In other words, species from the orders Poduromorpha (F. candida (DK) and Fd. parvulus) and Entomobryomorpha (Mes. yosii and T. houtanensis) were grouped separately in the tree (Figure 2).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The endosymbiont Wolbachia has been detected in a few parthenogenetic collembolans sampled in Europe and America, including three species of Poduromorpha, two species of Entomobryomorpha, and two species of Neelipleona. Based on 16S rRNA and ftsZ gene sequences, most of the Wolbachia infecting parthenogenetic collembolans were characterized as members of supergroup E and showed concordant phylogeny with their hosts. However, the two neelipleonan symbionts form another unique group, indicating that Wolbachia has infected parthenogenetic collembolans multiple times. In this study, five parthenogenetic collembolan species were identified as hosts of Wolbachia, and four new Wolbachia strains were reported for four collembolan species sampled in China, respectively, including a neelipleonan strain from Megalothorax incertus (wMinc). Our results demonstrated that the Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system is superior to the 16S rRNA + ftsZ approach for phylogenetic analyses of collembolan Wolbachia. The MLST system assigned these Wolbachia of parthenogenetic collembolans to supergroup E as a unique clade, which included wMinc, supporting the monophyletic origin of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic collembolan species. Moreover, our data suggested supergroup E as one of the most divergent lineages in Wolbachia and revealed the discrepancy between the phylogenies of Wolbachia from parthenogenetic collembolans and their hosts, which may result from the high level of genetic divergence between collembolan Wolbachia, in association with the geographic differentiation of their hosts, or the possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different collembolan species.

No MeSH data available.