Limits...
Revisiting the phylogeny of Wolbachia in Collembola

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The endosymbiont Wolbachia has been detected in a few parthenogenetic collembolans sampled in Europe and America, including three species of Poduromorpha, two species of Entomobryomorpha, and two species of Neelipleona. Based on 16S rRNA and ftsZ gene sequences, most of the Wolbachia infecting parthenogenetic collembolans were characterized as members of supergroup E and showed concordant phylogeny with their hosts. However, the two neelipleonan symbionts form another unique group, indicating that Wolbachia has infected parthenogenetic collembolans multiple times. In this study, five parthenogenetic collembolan species were identified as hosts of Wolbachia, and four new Wolbachia strains were reported for four collembolan species sampled in China, respectively, including a neelipleonan strain from Megalothorax incertus (wMinc). Our results demonstrated that the Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system is superior to the 16S rRNA + ftsZ approach for phylogenetic analyses of collembolan Wolbachia. The MLST system assigned these Wolbachia of parthenogenetic collembolans to supergroup E as a unique clade, which included wMinc, supporting the monophyletic origin of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic collembolan species. Moreover, our data suggested supergroup E as one of the most divergent lineages in Wolbachia and revealed the discrepancy between the phylogenies of Wolbachia from parthenogenetic collembolans and their hosts, which may result from the high level of genetic divergence between collembolan Wolbachia, in association with the geographic differentiation of their hosts, or the possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different collembolan species.

No MeSH data available.


Unrooted Wolbachia tree based on the concatenated dataset of five MLST loci. The dendrogram was generated through Bayesian inference (BI). The same tree topology was recovered in the maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. Support values at nodes indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (left) and ML bootstraps (right) as percentages. A partitioning scheme based on codon positions across genes was used in both inferences. Wolbachia strains are represented with the name of their host species, followed by their isolate ID in the PubMLST database (in parentheses). Collembolan symbionts are shown in bold and enlarged fonts. The corresponding clade for supergroup E is marked with gray shading. Supergroups A and B are collapsed to simplify the display of the tree. There are 82 (isolate ID: 1–18, 38, 46, 55, 61, 68, 78, 88, 96, 98, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110–114, 116, 117, 120–122, 126, 127, 129, 133, 135, 137–145, 165, 167–171, 177, 179, 182, 183, 250, 294, 325, 346–352, 399, 401, 420, 425, 555, 613) and 45 (isolate ID: 19, 20, 21, 25–27, 29, 31–33, 35, 40, 70, 87, 97, 102, 118, 130, 132, 194, 195, 200, 208, 212, 219, 225, 235, 246, 267–270, 293, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 353, 454, 456, 457, 468, 507, 1595) taxa in clades A and B, respectively
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383468&req=5

ece32738-fig-0001: Unrooted Wolbachia tree based on the concatenated dataset of five MLST loci. The dendrogram was generated through Bayesian inference (BI). The same tree topology was recovered in the maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. Support values at nodes indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (left) and ML bootstraps (right) as percentages. A partitioning scheme based on codon positions across genes was used in both inferences. Wolbachia strains are represented with the name of their host species, followed by their isolate ID in the PubMLST database (in parentheses). Collembolan symbionts are shown in bold and enlarged fonts. The corresponding clade for supergroup E is marked with gray shading. Supergroups A and B are collapsed to simplify the display of the tree. There are 82 (isolate ID: 1–18, 38, 46, 55, 61, 68, 78, 88, 96, 98, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110–114, 116, 117, 120–122, 126, 127, 129, 133, 135, 137–145, 165, 167–171, 177, 179, 182, 183, 250, 294, 325, 346–352, 399, 401, 420, 425, 555, 613) and 45 (isolate ID: 19, 20, 21, 25–27, 29, 31–33, 35, 40, 70, 87, 97, 102, 118, 130, 132, 194, 195, 200, 208, 212, 219, 225, 235, 246, 267–270, 293, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 353, 454, 456, 457, 468, 507, 1595) taxa in clades A and B, respectively

Mentions: ML and Bayesian analyses of the Wolbachia MLST system resulted in a new robust phylogeny: All of the collembolan Wolbachia strains identified in this study were grouped into a unique lineage as supergroup E, including wMinc, with high support values (ML: 91, Bayesian: 100; in percentage). All supergroups were distinguished from each other, and supergroup E was the sister‐group to clade A + H (Figure 1). This monophyletic clade for collembolan Wolbachia was consistently recovered in phylogenies of individual genes, although topologies of these trees showed some differences (Fig. S8).


Revisiting the phylogeny of Wolbachia in Collembola
Unrooted Wolbachia tree based on the concatenated dataset of five MLST loci. The dendrogram was generated through Bayesian inference (BI). The same tree topology was recovered in the maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. Support values at nodes indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (left) and ML bootstraps (right) as percentages. A partitioning scheme based on codon positions across genes was used in both inferences. Wolbachia strains are represented with the name of their host species, followed by their isolate ID in the PubMLST database (in parentheses). Collembolan symbionts are shown in bold and enlarged fonts. The corresponding clade for supergroup E is marked with gray shading. Supergroups A and B are collapsed to simplify the display of the tree. There are 82 (isolate ID: 1–18, 38, 46, 55, 61, 68, 78, 88, 96, 98, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110–114, 116, 117, 120–122, 126, 127, 129, 133, 135, 137–145, 165, 167–171, 177, 179, 182, 183, 250, 294, 325, 346–352, 399, 401, 420, 425, 555, 613) and 45 (isolate ID: 19, 20, 21, 25–27, 29, 31–33, 35, 40, 70, 87, 97, 102, 118, 130, 132, 194, 195, 200, 208, 212, 219, 225, 235, 246, 267–270, 293, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 353, 454, 456, 457, 468, 507, 1595) taxa in clades A and B, respectively
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383468&req=5

ece32738-fig-0001: Unrooted Wolbachia tree based on the concatenated dataset of five MLST loci. The dendrogram was generated through Bayesian inference (BI). The same tree topology was recovered in the maximum likelihood (ML) analysis. Support values at nodes indicate Bayesian posterior probabilities (left) and ML bootstraps (right) as percentages. A partitioning scheme based on codon positions across genes was used in both inferences. Wolbachia strains are represented with the name of their host species, followed by their isolate ID in the PubMLST database (in parentheses). Collembolan symbionts are shown in bold and enlarged fonts. The corresponding clade for supergroup E is marked with gray shading. Supergroups A and B are collapsed to simplify the display of the tree. There are 82 (isolate ID: 1–18, 38, 46, 55, 61, 68, 78, 88, 96, 98, 103, 104, 106, 107, 108, 110–114, 116, 117, 120–122, 126, 127, 129, 133, 135, 137–145, 165, 167–171, 177, 179, 182, 183, 250, 294, 325, 346–352, 399, 401, 420, 425, 555, 613) and 45 (isolate ID: 19, 20, 21, 25–27, 29, 31–33, 35, 40, 70, 87, 97, 102, 118, 130, 132, 194, 195, 200, 208, 212, 219, 225, 235, 246, 267–270, 293, 309, 310, 315, 317, 318, 353, 454, 456, 457, 468, 507, 1595) taxa in clades A and B, respectively
Mentions: ML and Bayesian analyses of the Wolbachia MLST system resulted in a new robust phylogeny: All of the collembolan Wolbachia strains identified in this study were grouped into a unique lineage as supergroup E, including wMinc, with high support values (ML: 91, Bayesian: 100; in percentage). All supergroups were distinguished from each other, and supergroup E was the sister‐group to clade A + H (Figure 1). This monophyletic clade for collembolan Wolbachia was consistently recovered in phylogenies of individual genes, although topologies of these trees showed some differences (Fig. S8).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The endosymbiont Wolbachia has been detected in a few parthenogenetic collembolans sampled in Europe and America, including three species of Poduromorpha, two species of Entomobryomorpha, and two species of Neelipleona. Based on 16S rRNA and ftsZ gene sequences, most of the Wolbachia infecting parthenogenetic collembolans were characterized as members of supergroup E and showed concordant phylogeny with their hosts. However, the two neelipleonan symbionts form another unique group, indicating that Wolbachia has infected parthenogenetic collembolans multiple times. In this study, five parthenogenetic collembolan species were identified as hosts of Wolbachia, and four new Wolbachia strains were reported for four collembolan species sampled in China, respectively, including a neelipleonan strain from Megalothorax incertus (wMinc). Our results demonstrated that the Wolbachia multilocus sequence typing (MLST) system is superior to the 16S rRNA + ftsZ approach for phylogenetic analyses of collembolan Wolbachia. The MLST system assigned these Wolbachia of parthenogenetic collembolans to supergroup E as a unique clade, which included wMinc, supporting the monophyletic origin of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic collembolan species. Moreover, our data suggested supergroup E as one of the most divergent lineages in Wolbachia and revealed the discrepancy between the phylogenies of Wolbachia from parthenogenetic collembolans and their hosts, which may result from the high level of genetic divergence between collembolan Wolbachia, in association with the geographic differentiation of their hosts, or the possible horizontal transmission of Wolbachia between different collembolan species.

No MeSH data available.