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Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

Methods: Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs.

Results: Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens’ average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71.

Conclusions: The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart.

No MeSH data available.


Demonstration of Arabic typeface characteristics. (A) A sample of a five-letter word (which means community) in Times New Roman font. The numbers 1–5 indicate each letter. (B) The same word with a ligature using Arabic typesetting font.
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fig0005: Demonstration of Arabic typeface characteristics. (A) A sample of a five-letter word (which means community) in Times New Roman font. The numbers 1–5 indicate each letter. (B) The same word with a ligature using Arabic typesetting font.

Mentions: It has been suggested by other researchers6, 37, 41 that the optimum font would be the most commonly used font in everyday printed material such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. However, most Arabic newspapers use their own specially designed font, whereas most English newspapers use commonly available proportionally spaced serif fonts (e.g. Times New Roman).6 The exact fonts used in popular Arabic newspapers are not available, for use by others and thus, could not be used. Therefore, the closest available font in Microsoft Word© was chosen, which was Arabic Times New Roman font. This choice had additional advantages. Firstly, it is frequently used in reading charts of other languages.6, 19, 24, 26, 28 Secondly, Arabic Times New Roman font in Microsoft Word© does not use ligatures, which are specific Arabic font characteristics. A ligature is used when more than one character is joined to form a single glyph (a readable character or shape) (Fig. 1) and they cannot be eliminated. The use of a ligature could affect the readability, as it changes the shape and height of a word and may cause more crowding, especially in small font sizes and for people with low vision. Thirdly, it has been shown that Arabic Times New Roman results in enhanced reading performance compared to Courier.42


Toward developing a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart
Demonstration of Arabic typeface characteristics. (A) A sample of a five-letter word (which means community) in Times New Roman font. The numbers 1–5 indicate each letter. (B) The same word with a ligature using Arabic typesetting font.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383463&req=5

fig0005: Demonstration of Arabic typeface characteristics. (A) A sample of a five-letter word (which means community) in Times New Roman font. The numbers 1–5 indicate each letter. (B) The same word with a ligature using Arabic typesetting font.
Mentions: It has been suggested by other researchers6, 37, 41 that the optimum font would be the most commonly used font in everyday printed material such as newspapers, magazines, books, etc. However, most Arabic newspapers use their own specially designed font, whereas most English newspapers use commonly available proportionally spaced serif fonts (e.g. Times New Roman).6 The exact fonts used in popular Arabic newspapers are not available, for use by others and thus, could not be used. Therefore, the closest available font in Microsoft Word© was chosen, which was Arabic Times New Roman font. This choice had additional advantages. Firstly, it is frequently used in reading charts of other languages.6, 19, 24, 26, 28 Secondly, Arabic Times New Roman font in Microsoft Word© does not use ligatures, which are specific Arabic font characteristics. A ligature is used when more than one character is joined to form a single glyph (a readable character or shape) (Fig. 1) and they cannot be eliminated. The use of a ligature could affect the readability, as it changes the shape and height of a word and may cause more crowding, especially in small font sizes and for people with low vision. Thirdly, it has been shown that Arabic Times New Roman results in enhanced reading performance compared to Courier.42

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Near visual acuity is an essential measurement during an oculo-visual assessment. Short duration continuous text reading charts measure reading acuity and other aspects of reading performance. There is no standardized version of such chart in Arabic. The aim of this study is to create sentences of equal readability to use in the development of a standardized Arabic continuous text reading chart.

Methods: Initially, 109 Arabic pairs of sentences were created for use in constructing a chart with similar layout to the Colenbrander chart. They were created to have the same grade level of difficulty and physical length. Fifty-three adults and sixteen children were recruited to validate the sentences. Reading speed in correct words per minute (CWPM) and standard length words per minute (SLWPM) was measured and errors were counted. Criteria based on reading speed and errors made in each sentence pair were used to exclude sentence pairs with more outlying characteristics, and to select the final group of sentence pairs.

Results: Forty-five sentence pairs were selected according to the elimination criteria. For adults, the average reading speed for the final sentences was 166 CWPM and 187 SLWPM and the average number of errors per sentence pair was 0.21. Childrens’ average reading speed for the final group of sentences was 61 CWPM and 72 SLWPM. Their average error rate was 1.71.

Conclusions: The reliability analysis showed that the final 45 sentence pairs are highly comparable. They will be used in constructing an Arabic short duration continuous text reading chart.

No MeSH data available.