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Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters—which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field—have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

No MeSH data available.


Flow rate versus inlet pressure with variations in channel depth.Blue scatter dots are data collected in this study, aggregated as box plots. Solid line is theoretical prediction.
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pone.0175241.g011: Flow rate versus inlet pressure with variations in channel depth.Blue scatter dots are data collected in this study, aggregated as box plots. Solid line is theoretical prediction.

Mentions: Fig 11 shows a close correlation between the experimental data and theoretical predictions for differing channel depths. For emitters 2 and 3, the values were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The trend seen is that an increase in channel depth led to increased flow rates. This trend is consistent with the discussion in the section. An increase in channel depth increases the cross-sectional area of the fluid flow path, leading to a decrease in flow resistance and higher flow rates. This trend is commonly seen in currently manufactured emitters where lower flow rate emitters have a shallower channel, while higher flow rate emitters have deeper channels [14, 31].


Modeling the future of irrigation: A parametric description of pressure compensating drip irrigation emitter performance
Flow rate versus inlet pressure with variations in channel depth.Blue scatter dots are data collected in this study, aggregated as box plots. Solid line is theoretical prediction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383273&req=5

pone.0175241.g011: Flow rate versus inlet pressure with variations in channel depth.Blue scatter dots are data collected in this study, aggregated as box plots. Solid line is theoretical prediction.
Mentions: Fig 11 shows a close correlation between the experimental data and theoretical predictions for differing channel depths. For emitters 2 and 3, the values were 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. The trend seen is that an increase in channel depth led to increased flow rates. This trend is consistent with the discussion in the section. An increase in channel depth increases the cross-sectional area of the fluid flow path, leading to a decrease in flow resistance and higher flow rates. This trend is commonly seen in currently manufactured emitters where lower flow rate emitters have a shallower channel, while higher flow rate emitters have deeper channels [14, 31].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Drip irrigation is a means of distributing the exact amount of water a plant needs by dripping water directly onto the root zone. It can produce up to 90% more crops than rain-fed irrigation, and reduce water consumption by 70% compared to conventional flood irrigation. Drip irrigation may enable millions of poor farmers to rise out of poverty by growing more and higher value crops, while not contributing to overconsumption of water. Achieving this impact will require broadening the engineering knowledge required to design new, low-cost, low-power drip irrigation technology, particularly for poor, off-grid communities in developing countries. For more than 50 years, pressure compensating (PC) drip emitters—which can maintain a constant flow rate under variations in pressure, to ensure uniform water distribution on a field—have been designed and optimized empirically. This study presents a parametric model that describes the fluid and solid mechanics that govern the behavior of a common PC emitter architecture, which uses a flexible diaphragm to limit flow. The model was validated by testing nine prototypes with geometric variations, all of which matched predicted performance to within R2 = 0.85. This parametric model will enable irrigation engineers to design new drip emitters with attributes that improve performance and lower cost, which will promote the use of drip irrigation throughout the world.

No MeSH data available.