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No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt × population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt tolerance ability across the S. canadensis distribution.

No MeSH data available.


Effect of salt treatment on root biomass (a) shoot biomass (b) and total biomass (c). Values are shown in mean ± standard error (SE). *, **, ***, indicate that the difference between the control and salt treatment is significant at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively.
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pone.0175252.g002: Effect of salt treatment on root biomass (a) shoot biomass (b) and total biomass (c). Values are shown in mean ± standard error (SE). *, **, ***, indicate that the difference between the control and salt treatment is significant at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively.

Mentions: The salt treatment significantly inhibited the rate of increase in the number of leaves (Fig 1A, paired t value = 8.987, p<0.001) and the rate of increase in plant height (Fig 1B, paired t value = 7.245, p<0.001). Salt treatment also significantly reduced the root biomass (Fig 2A, paired t value = 4.306 p = 0.002), shoot biomass (Fig 2B, paired t value = 6.597, p<0.001) and total biomass (Fig 2C, paired t value = 6.733, p<0.001). Under salt treatment, the root, shoot, and total biomass and plant height of S. canadensis populations from moderate/severe salt-level soil were similar to those of S. canadensis populations from low salt-level soil (Fig 3).


No evidence for local adaptation to salt stress in the existing populations of invasive Solidago canadensis in China
Effect of salt treatment on root biomass (a) shoot biomass (b) and total biomass (c). Values are shown in mean ± standard error (SE). *, **, ***, indicate that the difference between the control and salt treatment is significant at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5383265&req=5

pone.0175252.g002: Effect of salt treatment on root biomass (a) shoot biomass (b) and total biomass (c). Values are shown in mean ± standard error (SE). *, **, ***, indicate that the difference between the control and salt treatment is significant at p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively.
Mentions: The salt treatment significantly inhibited the rate of increase in the number of leaves (Fig 1A, paired t value = 8.987, p<0.001) and the rate of increase in plant height (Fig 1B, paired t value = 7.245, p<0.001). Salt treatment also significantly reduced the root biomass (Fig 2A, paired t value = 4.306 p = 0.002), shoot biomass (Fig 2B, paired t value = 6.597, p<0.001) and total biomass (Fig 2C, paired t value = 6.733, p<0.001). Under salt treatment, the root, shoot, and total biomass and plant height of S. canadensis populations from moderate/severe salt-level soil were similar to those of S. canadensis populations from low salt-level soil (Fig 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Local adaptation is an important mechanism underlying the adaptation of plants to environmental heterogeneity, and the toxicity of salt results in strong selection pressure on salt tolerance in plants and different ecotypes. Solidago canadensis, which is invasive in China, has spread widely and has recently colonized alkali sandy loams with a significant salt content. A common greenhouse experiment was conducted to test the role of local adaptation in the successful invasion of S. canadensis into salty habitats. Salt treatment significantly decreased the growth of S. canadensis, including rates of increase in the number of leaves and plant height; the root, shoot, and total biomass. Furthermore, salt stress significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and relative chlorophyll content but significantly increased peroxidase activity and the proline content of S. canadensis and the root/shoot ratio. Two-way analysis of variance showed that salt treatment had a significant effect on the physiological traits of S. canadensis, except for the intercellular CO2 concentration, whereas the population and the salt &times; population interaction had no significant effect on any physiological traits. Most of the variation in plasticity existed within and not among populations, excep for the root/shoot ratio. S. canadensis populations from soil with moderate/high salt levels grew similarly to S. canadensis populations from soils with low salt levels. No significant correlation between salt tolerance indices and soil salinity levels was observed. The plasticity of the proline content, intercellular CO2 concentration and chlorophyll content had significant correlations with the salt tolerance index. These findings indicate a lack of evidence for local adaption in the existing populations of invasive S. canadensis in China; instead, plasticity might be more important than local adaptation in influencing the physiological traits and salt tolerance ability across the S. canadensis distribution.

No MeSH data available.