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Structuring effects of chemicals from the sea fan Phyllogorgia dilatata on benthic communities

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ABSTRACT

Despite advances in understanding the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from marine organisms, there has been little focus on the influence of chemically-defended species at the community level. Several compounds have been isolated from the gorgonian octocoral Phyllogorgia dilatata, a conspicuous species that forms dense canopies on rocky reefs of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Manipulative experiments were performed to study: (1) the effects of live colonies of P. dilatata (physical presence and chemistry) on recruitment of sympatric benthic organisms; (2) the allelopathic effects of its chemicals on competitors; and (3) chemotactic responses of the non-indigenous brittle star, Ophiothela mirabilis. Early establishment of benthic species was influenced on substrates around live P. dilatata colonies and some effects could be attributed to the gorgonian’s secondary metabolites.In addition, the gorgonian chemicals also exerted an allelopathic effect on the sympatric zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum, and positive chemotaxis upon O. mirabilis. These results indicate multiple ecological roles of a chemically-defended gorgonian on settlement, sympatric competitors, and non-indigenous species.

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(A) Fouling community over recruitment panels near live colonies of P. dilatata and mimics. Samples are grouped within 60% similarity contours. Data are square-root transformed. (B) Fouling community over disks treated with crude extract and controls.Samples are grouped within 75% similarity contours. Data are fourth-root transformed.
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fig-9: (A) Fouling community over recruitment panels near live colonies of P. dilatata and mimics. Samples are grouped within 60% similarity contours. Data are square-root transformed. (B) Fouling community over disks treated with crude extract and controls.Samples are grouped within 75% similarity contours. Data are fourth-root transformed.

Mentions: After 145 days, the total cover of seaweeds was consistently higher near to live colonies of P. dilatata (>70%), while those near sea fan mimics had similar percentages of cover (ca. 50%) of algae and invertebrate taxa (Table 1). Two distinct groups within 60% similarity were identified from the non-metric multidimensional ordination (nMDS) plot (Fig. 9A). Most organisms that settled near mimics clustered together, and the same pattern was apparent for those near live colonies, with few exceptions. The two red seaweeds, Spyridia sp. and Centroceras clavulatum, and the Serpulidae polychaetes accounted for the main differences between communities settled on treatment and control panels (ANOSIM R = 0.181, p < 0.005). According to the SIMPER analysis of species contributions, Spyridia sp. contributed more than 26% to the average similarity (65.98%) among settled organisms near live gorgonoid colonies. Tube dwelling Serpulidae, which were more abundant on panels near mimics than near P. dilatata (ANOVA, df = 1; F = 21.07; p < 0.005), also contributed with 11.65% to the average dissimilarity (35.83%) between groups.


Structuring effects of chemicals from the sea fan Phyllogorgia dilatata on benthic communities
(A) Fouling community over recruitment panels near live colonies of P. dilatata and mimics. Samples are grouped within 60% similarity contours. Data are square-root transformed. (B) Fouling community over disks treated with crude extract and controls.Samples are grouped within 75% similarity contours. Data are fourth-root transformed.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382925&req=5

fig-9: (A) Fouling community over recruitment panels near live colonies of P. dilatata and mimics. Samples are grouped within 60% similarity contours. Data are square-root transformed. (B) Fouling community over disks treated with crude extract and controls.Samples are grouped within 75% similarity contours. Data are fourth-root transformed.
Mentions: After 145 days, the total cover of seaweeds was consistently higher near to live colonies of P. dilatata (>70%), while those near sea fan mimics had similar percentages of cover (ca. 50%) of algae and invertebrate taxa (Table 1). Two distinct groups within 60% similarity were identified from the non-metric multidimensional ordination (nMDS) plot (Fig. 9A). Most organisms that settled near mimics clustered together, and the same pattern was apparent for those near live colonies, with few exceptions. The two red seaweeds, Spyridia sp. and Centroceras clavulatum, and the Serpulidae polychaetes accounted for the main differences between communities settled on treatment and control panels (ANOSIM R = 0.181, p < 0.005). According to the SIMPER analysis of species contributions, Spyridia sp. contributed more than 26% to the average similarity (65.98%) among settled organisms near live gorgonoid colonies. Tube dwelling Serpulidae, which were more abundant on panels near mimics than near P. dilatata (ANOVA, df = 1; F = 21.07; p < 0.005), also contributed with 11.65% to the average dissimilarity (35.83%) between groups.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Despite advances in understanding the ecological functions of secondary metabolites from marine organisms, there has been little focus on the influence of chemically-defended species at the community level. Several compounds have been isolated from the gorgonian octocoral Phyllogorgia dilatata, a conspicuous species that forms dense canopies on rocky reefs of northern Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Manipulative experiments were performed to study: (1) the effects of live colonies of P. dilatata (physical presence and chemistry) on recruitment of sympatric benthic organisms; (2) the allelopathic effects of its chemicals on competitors; and (3) chemotactic responses of the non-indigenous brittle star, Ophiothela mirabilis. Early establishment of benthic species was influenced on substrates around live P. dilatata colonies and some effects could be attributed to the gorgonian&rsquo;s secondary metabolites.In addition, the gorgonian chemicals also exerted an allelopathic effect on the sympatric zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum, and positive chemotaxis upon O. mirabilis. These results indicate multiple ecological roles of a chemically-defended gorgonian on settlement, sympatric competitors, and non-indigenous species.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus