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High-precision 14 C and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (Y-5) reconciles the time-scales of climatic-cultural processes at 40 ka

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ABSTRACT

The Late Pleistocene Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption (Southern Italy) is the largest known volcanic event in the Mediterranean area. The CI tephra is widely dispersed through western Eurasia and occurs in close stratigraphic association with significant palaeoclimatic and Palaeolithic cultural events. Here we present new high-precision 14C (34.29 ± 0.09 14C kyr BP, 1σ) and 40Ar/39Ar (39.85 ± 0.14 ka, 95% confidence level) dating results for the age of the CI eruption, which substantially improve upon or augment previous age determinations and permit fuller exploitation of the chronological potential of the CI tephra marker. These results provide a robust pair of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages for refining both the radiocarbon calibration curve and the Late Pleistocene time-scale at ca. 40 ka. In addition, these new age constraints provide compelling chronological evidence for the significance of the combined influence of the CI eruption and Heinrich Event 4 on European climate and potentially evolutionary processes of the Early Upper Palaeolithic.

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Climatostratigraphic position and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C chronology of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra.(a) Comparison between the pair of the 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the CI with the IntCal13 curve and related data sets for the 34–44 cal ka BP interval38. The pair of ages of the CI falls out of the IntCal13 curve, but fit very well with the Cariaco-Hulu2 Cave and Fairbanks corals data-sets. (b) New 40Ar/39Ar age of the CI compared with previous233 recalculated 40Ar/39Ar age, the weighted-mean of all new and previous 40Ar/39Ar ages and the age inferred from CI climatostratigraphic position (blue line). In order to frame the CI climatostratigraphic position within a unique and consistent palaeoclimatic and chronological framework, by using as tie-points the abrupt warming of the onset of the Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI12) to GI5, we aligned the Black Sea (M72/5-25-GC1, 18) and the Tenaghi-Philippon17 high-resolution records to the NorthGRIP GICC05 time-scale4243. The calibrated radiocarbon ages of the CI, according to the IntCal1338 and IntCal0939, and the position of the Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) are also shown.
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f3: Climatostratigraphic position and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C chronology of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra.(a) Comparison between the pair of the 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the CI with the IntCal13 curve and related data sets for the 34–44 cal ka BP interval38. The pair of ages of the CI falls out of the IntCal13 curve, but fit very well with the Cariaco-Hulu2 Cave and Fairbanks corals data-sets. (b) New 40Ar/39Ar age of the CI compared with previous233 recalculated 40Ar/39Ar age, the weighted-mean of all new and previous 40Ar/39Ar ages and the age inferred from CI climatostratigraphic position (blue line). In order to frame the CI climatostratigraphic position within a unique and consistent palaeoclimatic and chronological framework, by using as tie-points the abrupt warming of the onset of the Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI12) to GI5, we aligned the Black Sea (M72/5-25-GC1, 18) and the Tenaghi-Philippon17 high-resolution records to the NorthGRIP GICC05 time-scale4243. The calibrated radiocarbon ages of the CI, according to the IntCal1338 and IntCal0939, and the position of the Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) are also shown.

Mentions: The pair of calendar and 14C ages of the CI tephra allows assessment of the calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale in a narrow time-window across CI event (Fig. 3a). For comparison with the paired age of the CI obtained in this study, both IntCal1338 and IntCal0939 data sets were considered. When using the most recent IntCal13 calibration curve a calibrated radiocarbon age of 38.5–39.0 ka cal BP for the charred wood from the CI tuff is obtained, which is substantially younger than the new 40Ar/39Ar age of 39.85 ± 0.14 ka. However, calibration with the previous IntCal09 data set results in an age of 39.7–38.7 ka cal BP, which nearly agrees with the new 40Ar/39Ar age of CI (Fig. 3b). Therefore, our results suggest that IntCal09 provides more accurate radiocarbon calibrations at least for the narrow interval close the CI age and immediately following the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion.


High-precision 14 C and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dating of the Campanian Ignimbrite (Y-5) reconciles the time-scales of climatic-cultural processes at 40 ka
Climatostratigraphic position and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C chronology of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra.(a) Comparison between the pair of the 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the CI with the IntCal13 curve and related data sets for the 34–44 cal ka BP interval38. The pair of ages of the CI falls out of the IntCal13 curve, but fit very well with the Cariaco-Hulu2 Cave and Fairbanks corals data-sets. (b) New 40Ar/39Ar age of the CI compared with previous233 recalculated 40Ar/39Ar age, the weighted-mean of all new and previous 40Ar/39Ar ages and the age inferred from CI climatostratigraphic position (blue line). In order to frame the CI climatostratigraphic position within a unique and consistent palaeoclimatic and chronological framework, by using as tie-points the abrupt warming of the onset of the Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI12) to GI5, we aligned the Black Sea (M72/5-25-GC1, 18) and the Tenaghi-Philippon17 high-resolution records to the NorthGRIP GICC05 time-scale4243. The calibrated radiocarbon ages of the CI, according to the IntCal1338 and IntCal0939, and the position of the Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) are also shown.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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f3: Climatostratigraphic position and 40Ar/39Ar and 14C chronology of the Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) tephra.(a) Comparison between the pair of the 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages of the CI with the IntCal13 curve and related data sets for the 34–44 cal ka BP interval38. The pair of ages of the CI falls out of the IntCal13 curve, but fit very well with the Cariaco-Hulu2 Cave and Fairbanks corals data-sets. (b) New 40Ar/39Ar age of the CI compared with previous233 recalculated 40Ar/39Ar age, the weighted-mean of all new and previous 40Ar/39Ar ages and the age inferred from CI climatostratigraphic position (blue line). In order to frame the CI climatostratigraphic position within a unique and consistent palaeoclimatic and chronological framework, by using as tie-points the abrupt warming of the onset of the Greenland Interstadial 12 (GI12) to GI5, we aligned the Black Sea (M72/5-25-GC1, 18) and the Tenaghi-Philippon17 high-resolution records to the NorthGRIP GICC05 time-scale4243. The calibrated radiocarbon ages of the CI, according to the IntCal1338 and IntCal0939, and the position of the Heinrich Event 4 (HE4) are also shown.
Mentions: The pair of calendar and 14C ages of the CI tephra allows assessment of the calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale in a narrow time-window across CI event (Fig. 3a). For comparison with the paired age of the CI obtained in this study, both IntCal1338 and IntCal0939 data sets were considered. When using the most recent IntCal13 calibration curve a calibrated radiocarbon age of 38.5–39.0 ka cal BP for the charred wood from the CI tuff is obtained, which is substantially younger than the new 40Ar/39Ar age of 39.85 ± 0.14 ka. However, calibration with the previous IntCal09 data set results in an age of 39.7–38.7 ka cal BP, which nearly agrees with the new 40Ar/39Ar age of CI (Fig. 3b). Therefore, our results suggest that IntCal09 provides more accurate radiocarbon calibrations at least for the narrow interval close the CI age and immediately following the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

The Late Pleistocene Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption (Southern Italy) is the largest known volcanic event in the Mediterranean area. The CI tephra is widely dispersed through western Eurasia and occurs in close stratigraphic association with significant palaeoclimatic and Palaeolithic cultural events. Here we present new high-precision 14C (34.29 ± 0.09 14C kyr BP, 1σ) and 40Ar/39Ar (39.85 ± 0.14 ka, 95% confidence level) dating results for the age of the CI eruption, which substantially improve upon or augment previous age determinations and permit fuller exploitation of the chronological potential of the CI tephra marker. These results provide a robust pair of 14C and 40Ar/39Ar ages for refining both the radiocarbon calibration curve and the Late Pleistocene time-scale at ca. 40 ka. In addition, these new age constraints provide compelling chronological evidence for the significance of the combined influence of the CI eruption and Heinrich Event 4 on European climate and potentially evolutionary processes of the Early Upper Palaeolithic.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus