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Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extracts Prevent Formation of Renal Calculi in Lithiatic Rats

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Bryophyllum pinnatum, commonly known as Pattharcaṭṭa, is used traditionally in ethnomedicinal practices for the treatment of kidney stone and urinary insufficiency.

Aim:: The present study evaluated the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced renal calculi in rats.

Materials and methods:: Renal calculi were induced in rats by administration of 0.75% EG in drinking water and co-treated orally with standard drug, Cystone (750 mg/kg), or alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Weekly body weights were recorded. On day 29, urolithiasis was confirmed by assessing the urinary parameters (urine volume, pH, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate, magnesium and creatinine clearance), serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium), oxidative stress parameters and histology of kidney.

Results:: Treatment with extracts attenuated the EG-induced decrease in body weight and elevation in urinary parameters (uric acid, calcium, phosphorus and oxalate) and serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium). Extract treatment also reversed EG-induced decrease in urine volume, pH, magnesium and creatinine clearance, oxidative and histological damages in kidneys. Results were comparable to standard drug, Cystone. Results indicated that EG administration caused renal calculi formation which is prevented by treatment with extracts. The observed antilithiatic effect may be attributed to the presence of high content of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in the extracts.

Conclusion:: Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves showed preventive effect against renal calculi formation and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders. It further supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of urinary calculi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on histology of kidney. (a) normal control showing normal cellular structure, (b) lithiatic control, showing CaOx crystal indicated by arrow with moderate to marked cellular degeneration, (c) cystone treated showed no crystal deposits and nearly normal renal architecture, (d) AlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed very few to no crystal deposits, (e) HAlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed no crystal deposition and normal structure (×400)
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Figure 1: Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on histology of kidney. (a) normal control showing normal cellular structure, (b) lithiatic control, showing CaOx crystal indicated by arrow with moderate to marked cellular degeneration, (c) cystone treated showed no crystal deposits and nearly normal renal architecture, (d) AlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed very few to no crystal deposits, (e) HAlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed no crystal deposition and normal structure (×400)

Mentions: Figure 1 depicts representative photomicrographs of microscopic observations of the kidney. There were no histopathological changes in renal tubules, glomeruli and blood vessels in normal group of rats [Figure 1a]. The EG induced lithiatic group showed the presence of CaOx crystals in lumen of tubules accompanied by inflammation and cast formation which causes dilation of tubules and blood vessels. The lithiatic group also revealed the presence of crystals in interstitial spaces with moderate to marked glomerular congestion and tubular degeneration [Figure 1b]. Very few or no crystal deposition and changes in the architecture of kidneys were found in cystone [Figure 1c], AlcE (400 mg/kg) [Figure 1d] and HAlcE (400 mg/kg) [Figure 1e] treated groups when compared to lithiatic control group.


Bryophyllum pinnatum Leaf Extracts Prevent Formation of Renal Calculi in Lithiatic Rats
Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on histology of kidney. (a) normal control showing normal cellular structure, (b) lithiatic control, showing CaOx crystal indicated by arrow with moderate to marked cellular degeneration, (c) cystone treated showed no crystal deposits and nearly normal renal architecture, (d) AlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed very few to no crystal deposits, (e) HAlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed no crystal deposition and normal structure (×400)
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382824&req=5

Figure 1: Effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum leaf extract on histology of kidney. (a) normal control showing normal cellular structure, (b) lithiatic control, showing CaOx crystal indicated by arrow with moderate to marked cellular degeneration, (c) cystone treated showed no crystal deposits and nearly normal renal architecture, (d) AlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed very few to no crystal deposits, (e) HAlcE 400 mg/kg treated showed no crystal deposition and normal structure (×400)
Mentions: Figure 1 depicts representative photomicrographs of microscopic observations of the kidney. There were no histopathological changes in renal tubules, glomeruli and blood vessels in normal group of rats [Figure 1a]. The EG induced lithiatic group showed the presence of CaOx crystals in lumen of tubules accompanied by inflammation and cast formation which causes dilation of tubules and blood vessels. The lithiatic group also revealed the presence of crystals in interstitial spaces with moderate to marked glomerular congestion and tubular degeneration [Figure 1b]. Very few or no crystal deposition and changes in the architecture of kidneys were found in cystone [Figure 1c], AlcE (400 mg/kg) [Figure 1d] and HAlcE (400 mg/kg) [Figure 1e] treated groups when compared to lithiatic control group.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Bryophyllum pinnatum, commonly known as Pattharcaṭṭa, is used traditionally in ethnomedicinal practices for the treatment of kidney stone and urinary insufficiency.

Aim:: The present study evaluated the effect of Bryophyllum pinnatum on ethylene glycol (EG)-induced renal calculi in rats.

Materials and methods:: Renal calculi were induced in rats by administration of 0.75% EG in drinking water and co-treated orally with standard drug, Cystone (750 mg/kg), or alcoholic and hydro-alcoholic extracts in doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg for 28 days. Weekly body weights were recorded. On day 29, urolithiasis was confirmed by assessing the urinary parameters (urine volume, pH, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, oxalate, magnesium and creatinine clearance), serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium), oxidative stress parameters and histology of kidney.

Results:: Treatment with extracts attenuated the EG-induced decrease in body weight and elevation in urinary parameters (uric acid, calcium, phosphorus and oxalate) and serum biochemical parameters (creatinine, uric acid, urea, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium). Extract treatment also reversed EG-induced decrease in urine volume, pH, magnesium and creatinine clearance, oxidative and histological damages in kidneys. Results were comparable to standard drug, Cystone. Results indicated that EG administration caused renal calculi formation which is prevented by treatment with extracts. The observed antilithiatic effect may be attributed to the presence of high content of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins in the extracts.

Conclusion:: Bryophyllum pinnatum leaves showed preventive effect against renal calculi formation and validates its ethnomedicinal use in urinary disorders. It further supports its therapeutic potential for the treatment of urinary calculi.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus