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Experimental Evaluation of Hi ṅ gv ā di Gh ṛ ta in Behavioral Despair Using Animal Models

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Context:: Depression, a sustained mood disorder caused by selective diminution of specialized cells in brain is increasing at an alarming rate. It will be the second largest morbid illness by next decade and is the leading cause of suicidal deaths. The available antidepressant medications benefit only a third of its recipients and have many side effects. Hence, it is imperative to search in Ayurveda for leads.

Aim:: To evaluate Anti- depressant activity of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in vivo.

Settings and design:: Comparative preclinical study.

Materials and methods:: Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta (HG) was prepared using standard operating procedure, physicochemically analyzed and assessed. Tail Suspension Test (TST) model with Swiss albino mice and Forced Swim Test (FST) model with Wistar albino rats were used to assess anti-depressant activity. Imipramine hydrochloride in dose of 15 mg/kg for TST and 10 mg/kg for FST, was the standard drug and Ghee as vehicle control in dose of 0.1g/20g for TST and 0.72g/200g for FST orally. Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in doses of 0.05g/20g (x/2), 0.1g/20g (x) and 0.2 g/20g (2x) for TST and 0.36g/200g (x/2), 0.72g/200g (x) and 1.44g/200g (2x) for FST was administered to 3 test groups for 21 days orally except Plain control group which received only distilled water. Duration of immobility in seconds for TST and number of rotations for FST were noted for assessment.

Statistical analysis used:: One way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test and Paired t test.

Results:: HG was significantly effective at dose of 0.1gm/20gm for TST (P = 0.0037; P < 0.01) and 0.72g/200g for FST (P = 0.0055, P < 0.01) comparable to Imipramine hydrochloride.

Conclusions:: HG displayed potent anti depressant activity comparable to standard drug Imipramine Hydrochloride.

No MeSH data available.


FST graph showing equieffective results for standard group and X dose of HG during comparison (One – way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test and Paired t-test). $Indicates comparison with plain control group, *Indicates comparison with vehicle control group
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Figure 2: FST graph showing equieffective results for standard group and X dose of HG during comparison (One – way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test and Paired t-test). $Indicates comparison with plain control group, *Indicates comparison with vehicle control group

Mentions: The results were interpreted considering the number of rotations performed by the rats in each group in 10 minutes, when subjected to FST. On the 21st day, there was increase in number of rotations in all groups except plain group. HG at X dose (0.72g/200g) showed significant result similar to standard drug Imipramine when compared with vehicle (ghee) control group. The groups X/2 (0.36g/200g) and 2X (1.44g/200g) dose levels of HG increased the number of rotations but were not statistically significant when compared with vehicle (ghee) control group [Figure 2].


Experimental Evaluation of Hi ṅ gv ā di Gh ṛ ta in Behavioral Despair Using Animal Models
FST graph showing equieffective results for standard group and X dose of HG during comparison (One – way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test and Paired t-test). $Indicates comparison with plain control group, *Indicates comparison with vehicle control group
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382823&req=5

Figure 2: FST graph showing equieffective results for standard group and X dose of HG during comparison (One – way ANOVA test followed by Dunnett's test and Paired t-test). $Indicates comparison with plain control group, *Indicates comparison with vehicle control group
Mentions: The results were interpreted considering the number of rotations performed by the rats in each group in 10 minutes, when subjected to FST. On the 21st day, there was increase in number of rotations in all groups except plain group. HG at X dose (0.72g/200g) showed significant result similar to standard drug Imipramine when compared with vehicle (ghee) control group. The groups X/2 (0.36g/200g) and 2X (1.44g/200g) dose levels of HG increased the number of rotations but were not statistically significant when compared with vehicle (ghee) control group [Figure 2].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Context:: Depression, a sustained mood disorder caused by selective diminution of specialized cells in brain is increasing at an alarming rate. It will be the second largest morbid illness by next decade and is the leading cause of suicidal deaths. The available antidepressant medications benefit only a third of its recipients and have many side effects. Hence, it is imperative to search in Ayurveda for leads.

Aim:: To evaluate Anti- depressant activity of Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in vivo.

Settings and design:: Comparative preclinical study.

Materials and methods:: Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta (HG) was prepared using standard operating procedure, physicochemically analyzed and assessed. Tail Suspension Test (TST) model with Swiss albino mice and Forced Swim Test (FST) model with Wistar albino rats were used to assess anti-depressant activity. Imipramine hydrochloride in dose of 15 mg/kg for TST and 10 mg/kg for FST, was the standard drug and Ghee as vehicle control in dose of 0.1g/20g for TST and 0.72g/200g for FST orally. Hiṅgvādi Ghṛta in doses of 0.05g/20g (x/2), 0.1g/20g (x) and 0.2 g/20g (2x) for TST and 0.36g/200g (x/2), 0.72g/200g (x) and 1.44g/200g (2x) for FST was administered to 3 test groups for 21 days orally except Plain control group which received only distilled water. Duration of immobility in seconds for TST and number of rotations for FST were noted for assessment.

Statistical analysis used:: One way ANOVA followed by Dunnets test and Paired t test.

Results:: HG was significantly effective at dose of 0.1gm/20gm for TST (P = 0.0037; P < 0.01) and 0.72g/200g for FST (P = 0.0055, P < 0.01) comparable to Imipramine hydrochloride.

Conclusions:: HG displayed potent anti depressant activity comparable to standard drug Imipramine Hydrochloride.

No MeSH data available.