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Preliminary Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Blepharis sindica -T. Anders Seeds

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Blepharis sindica – T. Anders of family Acanthaceae is an important medicinal plant which is mainly used as an invigorating tonic, given to cattle to increase milk production and its roots are used for urinary discharge and dysmenorrhea. It is commonly known as “Bhaṅgārī”. It is extensively used traditionally as Vājīkāraka and Vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac) by vaidyas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The seeds of Blepharis sindica T. Anders are the parts of the plant valued for their medicinal value.

Aims:: The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the root, stem, seed and seed powder.

Materials and methods:: The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical evaluation using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

Results:: Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were determined to be 21.449 ± 2.629%w/w, 0.986%w/w, 18.746%w/w respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts were carried out. Different extracts contain carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phenols, saponins and steroids prominently. Calcium, zinc, potassium and iron were also present. These secondary metabolites are the active constituents and may be responsible for B. sindica's pharmacological activities. Chief characters of transverse section of stem include ringed vascular bundles, radial striped pith rays and parenchymal pith. Seed shows presence of scalariform tracheids and lignified walls.

Conclusions:: The result of the present study can be useful for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

No MeSH data available.


Transverse section of seed of Blepharis sindica T. Anders
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Figure 5: Transverse section of seed of Blepharis sindica T. Anders

Mentions: The transverse section of stem showed epidermis compactly arranged of elongated, transparent and devoid of chloroplast parenchymatous cells. The vascular strand is in the form of ring; obtusely wedged vascular bundles are present around the central pith, inner to the pericycle. Each vascular bundle consists of phloem on the outside and xylem towards inner side. Phloem lies towards pericycle on the outer side of vascular bundle. Xylem is towards the pith; the inner portion of vascular bundles. Xylem consists of two parts: smaller protoxylem (of narrow bundles) and larger metaxylem of broader elements. The xylem is in endarch position which means that the protoxylem lies at the tip of metaxylem towards the pith or centre of stem. The medullary or pith rays are in the form of radial strips which are present between adjacent vascular bundles, connecting the pith with pericycle and cortex. The pith is made up of polygonal oval or rounded parenchyma cells which enclose intercellular spaces [Figure 3]. The transverse section of root showed narrow, superficial, less distinct periderm comprising of two or three layers of cells. The epidermis (rhizodermis) has disintegrated. The medullary rays are formed opposite to protoxylem points. Primary xylem is distinguished by its central position. Secondary xylem is on the inner side. As compared to primary xylem the vessels of secondary xylem are broader. Secondary xylem cylinder is wide and dense [Figure 4]. The transverse section of the seed showed the presence of hairy structure throughout its surface. Anemochory means the dispersal of fruit and seeds through the agency of wind or water currents. This hairy structure helps in its dispersal by water [Figure 5]. The seed powder is yellow blackish whitish, having characteristic odour and having sweet-pungent taste. Under microscope it showed elongated tracheids, angular dead cells with hard lignified walls, wide lumen and narrow end walls. The thickening deposited like a spiral or helix is spiral tracheids. The ladder like thickening appearance are scalariform tracheids because they are laid down in the form of transverse bands [Figure 6].


Preliminary Pharmacognostic and Phytochemical Investigation of Blepharis sindica -T. Anders Seeds
Transverse section of seed of Blepharis sindica T. Anders
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382822&req=5

Figure 5: Transverse section of seed of Blepharis sindica T. Anders
Mentions: The transverse section of stem showed epidermis compactly arranged of elongated, transparent and devoid of chloroplast parenchymatous cells. The vascular strand is in the form of ring; obtusely wedged vascular bundles are present around the central pith, inner to the pericycle. Each vascular bundle consists of phloem on the outside and xylem towards inner side. Phloem lies towards pericycle on the outer side of vascular bundle. Xylem is towards the pith; the inner portion of vascular bundles. Xylem consists of two parts: smaller protoxylem (of narrow bundles) and larger metaxylem of broader elements. The xylem is in endarch position which means that the protoxylem lies at the tip of metaxylem towards the pith or centre of stem. The medullary or pith rays are in the form of radial strips which are present between adjacent vascular bundles, connecting the pith with pericycle and cortex. The pith is made up of polygonal oval or rounded parenchyma cells which enclose intercellular spaces [Figure 3]. The transverse section of root showed narrow, superficial, less distinct periderm comprising of two or three layers of cells. The epidermis (rhizodermis) has disintegrated. The medullary rays are formed opposite to protoxylem points. Primary xylem is distinguished by its central position. Secondary xylem is on the inner side. As compared to primary xylem the vessels of secondary xylem are broader. Secondary xylem cylinder is wide and dense [Figure 4]. The transverse section of the seed showed the presence of hairy structure throughout its surface. Anemochory means the dispersal of fruit and seeds through the agency of wind or water currents. This hairy structure helps in its dispersal by water [Figure 5]. The seed powder is yellow blackish whitish, having characteristic odour and having sweet-pungent taste. Under microscope it showed elongated tracheids, angular dead cells with hard lignified walls, wide lumen and narrow end walls. The thickening deposited like a spiral or helix is spiral tracheids. The ladder like thickening appearance are scalariform tracheids because they are laid down in the form of transverse bands [Figure 6].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:: Blepharis sindica – T. Anders of family Acanthaceae is an important medicinal plant which is mainly used as an invigorating tonic, given to cattle to increase milk production and its roots are used for urinary discharge and dysmenorrhea. It is commonly known as “Bhaṅgārī”. It is extensively used traditionally as Vājīkāraka and Vṛṣya (Aphrodisiac) by vaidyas of Rajasthan and Gujarat. The seeds of Blepharis sindica T. Anders are the parts of the plant valued for their medicinal value.

Aims:: The present investigation deals with the pharmacognostic studies of the root, stem, seed and seed powder.

Materials and methods:: The study includes macroscopy, microscopy, preliminary phytochemical analysis and physicochemical evaluation using methods given in Indian Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia.

Results:: Physicochemical parameters such as total ash value, acid insoluble ash value and water soluble ash value were determined to be 21.449 ± 2.629%w/w, 0.986%w/w, 18.746%w/w respectively. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of extracts were carried out. Different extracts contain carbohydrate, protein, alkaloids, phenols, saponins and steroids prominently. Calcium, zinc, potassium and iron were also present. These secondary metabolites are the active constituents and may be responsible for B. sindica's pharmacological activities. Chief characters of transverse section of stem include ringed vascular bundles, radial striped pith rays and parenchymal pith. Seed shows presence of scalariform tracheids and lignified walls.

Conclusions:: The result of the present study can be useful for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

No MeSH data available.