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Production and physiological role of NO in the oral cavity

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical which is produced from a wide variety of cells and tissues in the human body. NO is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, such as vascular relaxation, neurotransmission, immune regulation, and cell death. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which has three identified isoforms: neuronal type NOS (nNOS), endothelial type NOS (eNOS), and inducible type NOS (iNOS). Different isoforms are expressed depending on the organs, tissues, and cells, and investigation of the types and functions of enzymes expressed in various tissues is underway. The oral cavity is a space in which marked changes have been detected in NO levels, and each tissue is constantly influenced by NO. NO is a component of saliva and is produced by oral bacteria in the oral cavity and released by NOS expressed in oral mucosa. NOS isoforms expressed under normal conditions differ among the oral organs. In addition, the overexpression of NOS was involved in carcinogenesis and tumor growth progression. This review summarized the expression of NOS and functions of NO in oral cavity organs, and their roles in diseases and the influences of treatments.

No MeSH data available.


Immunostaining of the mouse sublingual gland at 10 weeks of age with anti-nNOS antibody. nNOS-positive reactions appears in the striated ducts (arrowhead), but the acini are negative. Bar, 50 μm.
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fig0015: Immunostaining of the mouse sublingual gland at 10 weeks of age with anti-nNOS antibody. nNOS-positive reactions appears in the striated ducts (arrowhead), but the acini are negative. Bar, 50 μm.

Mentions: NO produced by nNOS is known to act on ion channels of acinar cells, and, is crucially involved in Ca2+ release [47]. The production of NO in the acini is considered to occur in nerve fibers distributed to acinar cells and contributes to saliva secretions including ions, as described above; however, NO has recently been suggested to be involved in protein synthesis in and the division of acinar cells [49]. On the other hand, the expression of NOS has also been observed in the ductal system, other than the acini. Our group confirmed the expression of nNOS in the ductal system (Fig. 3). Although the function of NOS in the ductal system currently remains unclear, it has been suggested to play a role in regulating saliva secretions and the direct secretion of NO into saliva [45], [50].


Production and physiological role of NO in the oral cavity
Immunostaining of the mouse sublingual gland at 10 weeks of age with anti-nNOS antibody. nNOS-positive reactions appears in the striated ducts (arrowhead), but the acini are negative. Bar, 50 μm.
© Copyright Policy - CC BY-NC-ND
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382787&req=5

fig0015: Immunostaining of the mouse sublingual gland at 10 weeks of age with anti-nNOS antibody. nNOS-positive reactions appears in the striated ducts (arrowhead), but the acini are negative. Bar, 50 μm.
Mentions: NO produced by nNOS is known to act on ion channels of acinar cells, and, is crucially involved in Ca2+ release [47]. The production of NO in the acini is considered to occur in nerve fibers distributed to acinar cells and contributes to saliva secretions including ions, as described above; however, NO has recently been suggested to be involved in protein synthesis in and the division of acinar cells [49]. On the other hand, the expression of NOS has also been observed in the ductal system, other than the acini. Our group confirmed the expression of nNOS in the ductal system (Fig. 3). Although the function of NOS in the ductal system currently remains unclear, it has been suggested to play a role in regulating saliva secretions and the direct secretion of NO into saliva [45], [50].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical which is produced from a wide variety of cells and tissues in the human body. NO is involved in the regulation of many physiological processes, such as vascular relaxation, neurotransmission, immune regulation, and cell death. NO is generated by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which has three identified isoforms: neuronal type NOS (nNOS), endothelial type NOS (eNOS), and inducible type NOS (iNOS). Different isoforms are expressed depending on the organs, tissues, and cells, and investigation of the types and functions of enzymes expressed in various tissues is underway. The oral cavity is a space in which marked changes have been detected in NO levels, and each tissue is constantly influenced by NO. NO is a component of saliva and is produced by oral bacteria in the oral cavity and released by NOS expressed in oral mucosa. NOS isoforms expressed under normal conditions differ among the oral organs. In addition, the overexpression of NOS was involved in carcinogenesis and tumor growth progression. This review summarized the expression of NOS and functions of NO in oral cavity organs, and their roles in diseases and the influences of treatments.

No MeSH data available.