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Triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites: towards efficient, annealing-free and air-stable solar cells enabled by Pb(SCN) 2 additive

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ABSTRACT

Organo-metal halide perovskites have suffered undesirably from structural and thermal instabilities. Moreover, thermal annealing is often indispensable to the crystallization of perovskites and removal of residual solvents, which is unsuitable for scalable fabrication of flexible solar modules. Herein, we demonstrate the non-thermal annealing fabrication of a novel type of air-stable triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites, FA0.7MA0.2Cs0.1Pb(I5/6Br1/6)3 (FMC) by incorporation of Pb(SCN)2 additive. It is found that adding Pb(SCN)2 functions the same as thermal annealing process by not only improving the crystallinity and optical absorption of perovskites, but also hindering the formation of morphological defects and non-radiative recombination. Furthermore, such Pb(SCN)2-treated FMC unannealed films present micrometer-sized crystal grains and remarkably high moisture stability. Planar solar cells built upon these unannealed films exhibit a high PCE of 14.09% with significantly suppressed hysteresis phenomenon compared to those of thermal annealing. The corresponding room-temperature fabricated flexible solar cell shows an impressive PCE of 10.55%. This work offers a new avenue to low-temperature fabrication of air-stable, flexible and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic of the device architecture, the photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells and the image of a flexible cell.(a) Schematic configuration of FMC perovskites based bilayered solar cells, and (b) their representative photocurrent density−voltage (J − V) characteristics of unannealed FMC (B), annealed FMC (C), unannealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (D), and annealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (E) under light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at reverse scan. (C) Photograph and (D) J − V characteristics of D based flexible solar cell under reverse and forward scans.
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f4: Schematic of the device architecture, the photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells and the image of a flexible cell.(a) Schematic configuration of FMC perovskites based bilayered solar cells, and (b) their representative photocurrent density−voltage (J − V) characteristics of unannealed FMC (B), annealed FMC (C), unannealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (D), and annealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (E) under light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at reverse scan. (C) Photograph and (D) J − V characteristics of D based flexible solar cell under reverse and forward scans.

Mentions: Next, we investigated the effects of thermal annealing and addition of Pb(SCN)2 on the FMC perovskites based planar solar cells of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PC61BM/Bphen/Al, as schematically depicted in Fig. 4a. Figure 4b presents the photocurrent density–voltage (J − V) curves of the optimal devices with reverse scan under simulated AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation. The complete J − V profiles with both reverse and forward scan directions are shown in Supplementary Figure S4, and the photovoltaic parameters are summarized in Table 1. In the FMC systems, thermal annealing assists to greatly increase the short-circuit current density (JSC) from 6.98 to 14.01 mA/cm2 at reverse scan with identical open-circuit voltage (VOC) of ~1.05 V and fill factor (FF) of ~72%, which coincides well with the optical absorption results, and thus doubles the PCE from 5.52% to 10.15%. However, hysteresis phenomenon still obviously exists in the annealed FMC cells as indicated in Figure S4b.


Triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites: towards efficient, annealing-free and air-stable solar cells enabled by Pb(SCN) 2 additive
Schematic of the device architecture, the photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells and the image of a flexible cell.(a) Schematic configuration of FMC perovskites based bilayered solar cells, and (b) their representative photocurrent density−voltage (J − V) characteristics of unannealed FMC (B), annealed FMC (C), unannealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (D), and annealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (E) under light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at reverse scan. (C) Photograph and (D) J − V characteristics of D based flexible solar cell under reverse and forward scans.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382775&req=5

f4: Schematic of the device architecture, the photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells and the image of a flexible cell.(a) Schematic configuration of FMC perovskites based bilayered solar cells, and (b) their representative photocurrent density−voltage (J − V) characteristics of unannealed FMC (B), annealed FMC (C), unannealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (D), and annealed FMC with Pb(SCN)2 (E) under light irradiation of 100 mW/cm2 at reverse scan. (C) Photograph and (D) J − V characteristics of D based flexible solar cell under reverse and forward scans.
Mentions: Next, we investigated the effects of thermal annealing and addition of Pb(SCN)2 on the FMC perovskites based planar solar cells of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskite/PC61BM/Bphen/Al, as schematically depicted in Fig. 4a. Figure 4b presents the photocurrent density–voltage (J − V) curves of the optimal devices with reverse scan under simulated AM 1.5 G sunlight irradiation. The complete J − V profiles with both reverse and forward scan directions are shown in Supplementary Figure S4, and the photovoltaic parameters are summarized in Table 1. In the FMC systems, thermal annealing assists to greatly increase the short-circuit current density (JSC) from 6.98 to 14.01 mA/cm2 at reverse scan with identical open-circuit voltage (VOC) of ~1.05 V and fill factor (FF) of ~72%, which coincides well with the optical absorption results, and thus doubles the PCE from 5.52% to 10.15%. However, hysteresis phenomenon still obviously exists in the annealed FMC cells as indicated in Figure S4b.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Organo-metal halide perovskites have suffered undesirably from structural and thermal instabilities. Moreover, thermal annealing is often indispensable to the crystallization of perovskites and removal of residual solvents, which is unsuitable for scalable fabrication of flexible solar modules. Herein, we demonstrate the non-thermal annealing fabrication of a novel type of air-stable triple-cation mixed-halide perovskites, FA0.7MA0.2Cs0.1Pb(I5/6Br1/6)3 (FMC) by incorporation of Pb(SCN)2 additive. It is found that adding Pb(SCN)2 functions the same as thermal annealing process by not only improving the crystallinity and optical absorption of perovskites, but also hindering the formation of morphological defects and non-radiative recombination. Furthermore, such Pb(SCN)2-treated FMC unannealed films present micrometer-sized crystal grains and remarkably high moisture stability. Planar solar cells built upon these unannealed films exhibit a high PCE of 14.09% with significantly suppressed hysteresis phenomenon compared to those of thermal annealing. The corresponding room-temperature fabricated flexible solar cell shows an impressive PCE of 10.55%. This work offers a new avenue to low-temperature fabrication of air-stable, flexible and high-efficiency perovskite solar cells.

No MeSH data available.