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Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Asian Elephants in Captivity

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Annotated timeline documenting the course of events in study of tuberculosis in captive elephants, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 1997–2013. INH, isoniazid; PZA pyrazinamide.
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Figure 2: Annotated timeline documenting the course of events in study of tuberculosis in captive elephants, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 1997–2013. INH, isoniazid; PZA pyrazinamide.

Mentions: Initial treatment efforts included an anti-TB regimen of isoniazid (5 mg/kg), rifampin (10mg/kg), and pyrazinamide (25 mg/kg). This regimen was initially given orally, but the administration failed because of elephant’s A refusal to ingest the medication despite attempts to disguise or mix the drugs with treats or other food. As a result, isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally, with serum concentrations obtained at 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration. This regimen was continued daily for 2 months, then every other day (QOD) for 1 year (Figure 2). The lengthy 3-month period until trunk washings were negative for M. tuberculosis by culture, the use of only 2 drugs, and the switch to a QOD regimen after only 2 months raised concern that elephant A’s treatment was suboptimal. In particular, pyrazinamide attacks a specific subpopulation of organisms, and in humans, the selection of drug resistance to other agents in the treatment regimen is increased (6).


Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection among Asian Elephants in Captivity
Annotated timeline documenting the course of events in study of tuberculosis in captive elephants, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 1997–2013. INH, isoniazid; PZA pyrazinamide.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382730&req=5

Figure 2: Annotated timeline documenting the course of events in study of tuberculosis in captive elephants, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA, 1997–2013. INH, isoniazid; PZA pyrazinamide.
Mentions: Initial treatment efforts included an anti-TB regimen of isoniazid (5 mg/kg), rifampin (10mg/kg), and pyrazinamide (25 mg/kg). This regimen was initially given orally, but the administration failed because of elephant’s A refusal to ingest the medication despite attempts to disguise or mix the drugs with treats or other food. As a result, isoniazid and pyrazinamide were given rectally, with serum concentrations obtained at 1, 2, and 4 hours after administration. This regimen was continued daily for 2 months, then every other day (QOD) for 1 year (Figure 2). The lengthy 3-month period until trunk washings were negative for M. tuberculosis by culture, the use of only 2 drugs, and the switch to a QOD regimen after only 2 months raised concern that elephant A’s treatment was suboptimal. In particular, pyrazinamide attacks a specific subpopulation of organisms, and in humans, the selection of drug resistance to other agents in the treatment regimen is increased (6).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Although awareness of tuberculosis among captive elephants is increasing, antituberculosis therapy for these animals is not standardized. We describe Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission between captive elephants based on whole genome analysis and report a successful combination treatment. Infection control protocols and careful monitoring of treatment of captive elephants with tuberculosis are warranted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus