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Phenotypic and genotypic correlation between myopia and intelligence

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Myopia, or near-sightedness, is our most common eye condition and the prevalence is increasing globally. Visual impairment will occur if uncorrected, whilst high myopia causes sight-threatening complications. Myopia is associated with higher intelligence. As both are heritable, we set out to examine whether there is a genetic correlation between myopia and intelligence in over 1,500 subjects (aged 14–18 years) from a twin birth cohort. The phenotypic correlation between refractive error and intelligence was −0.116 (p < 0.01) - the inverse correlation due to the fact that myopia is a negative refractive error. Bivariate twin modeling confirmed both traits were heritable (refractive error 85%, intelligence 47%) and the genetic correlation was −0.143 (95% CI −0.013 to −0.273). Of the small phenotypic correlation the majority (78%) was explained by genetic factors. Polygenic risk scores were constructed based on common genetic variants identified in previous genome-wide association studies of refractive error and intelligence. Genetic variants for intelligence and refractive error explain some of the reciprocal variance, suggesting genetic pleiotropy; in the best-fit model the polygenic score for intelligence explained 0.99% (p = 0.008) of refractive error variance. These novel findings indicate shared genetic factors contribute significantly to the covariance between myopia and intelligence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Bivariate twin ACE model for refractive error and IQ.Path estimates with 95% confidence intervals; A = additive genetic factors, C = common environmental factors, E = unique environmental factors; †=significant path estimates [n = 1529].
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f2: Bivariate twin ACE model for refractive error and IQ.Path estimates with 95% confidence intervals; A = additive genetic factors, C = common environmental factors, E = unique environmental factors; †=significant path estimates [n = 1529].

Mentions: Bivariate twin modeling estimated the heritability of refractive error at 85% (95% CI 79.9–87.5) and at 47% (95% CI 36.7–57.8) for IQ [Fig. 2]. Shared environmental factors contributed significantly to IQ variance (13%, 95% CI 3.9–21.2) and a lesser extent to refractive error (0.5%, 95% CI < 0.01–5.0). Individual environmental factors accounted for 15% (95% CI 12.3–17.4) of refractive error variance and a greater proportion of IQ variance (40%, 95% CI 36.5–43.9).


Phenotypic and genotypic correlation between myopia and intelligence
Bivariate twin ACE model for refractive error and IQ.Path estimates with 95% confidence intervals; A = additive genetic factors, C = common environmental factors, E = unique environmental factors; †=significant path estimates [n = 1529].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382686&req=5

f2: Bivariate twin ACE model for refractive error and IQ.Path estimates with 95% confidence intervals; A = additive genetic factors, C = common environmental factors, E = unique environmental factors; †=significant path estimates [n = 1529].
Mentions: Bivariate twin modeling estimated the heritability of refractive error at 85% (95% CI 79.9–87.5) and at 47% (95% CI 36.7–57.8) for IQ [Fig. 2]. Shared environmental factors contributed significantly to IQ variance (13%, 95% CI 3.9–21.2) and a lesser extent to refractive error (0.5%, 95% CI < 0.01–5.0). Individual environmental factors accounted for 15% (95% CI 12.3–17.4) of refractive error variance and a greater proportion of IQ variance (40%, 95% CI 36.5–43.9).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Myopia, or near-sightedness, is our most common eye condition and the prevalence is increasing globally. Visual impairment will occur if uncorrected, whilst high myopia causes sight-threatening complications. Myopia is associated with higher intelligence. As both are heritable, we set out to examine whether there is a genetic correlation between myopia and intelligence in over 1,500 subjects (aged 14&ndash;18 years) from a twin birth cohort. The phenotypic correlation between refractive error and intelligence was &minus;0.116 (p&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.01) - the inverse correlation due to the fact that myopia is a negative refractive error. Bivariate twin modeling confirmed both traits were heritable (refractive error 85%, intelligence 47%) and the genetic correlation was &minus;0.143 (95% CI &minus;0.013 to &minus;0.273). Of the small phenotypic correlation the majority (78%) was explained by genetic factors. Polygenic risk scores were constructed based on common genetic variants identified in previous genome-wide association studies of refractive error and intelligence. Genetic variants for intelligence and refractive error explain some of the reciprocal variance, suggesting genetic pleiotropy; in the best-fit model the polygenic score for intelligence explained 0.99% (p&thinsp;=&thinsp;0.008) of refractive error variance. These novel findings indicate shared genetic factors contribute significantly to the covariance between myopia and intelligence.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus