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Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs. The comparison indicates that there is a better consistency between the VTEC maps by the enhanced method and IGS final GIMs. Also, obvious improvements of RMS maps in GIMs for the middle latitudes and southern latitudes are enabled by the augmentation of Project Loon. Additionally, JASON data are used to validate the specific improvement of the VTEC maps. The results show that the performance of VTEC maps is improved slightly, especially in southern latitudes. It is possible that the VTEC maps could be improved significantly by using real GPS measurements from balloons of Project Loon in the near future.

No MeSH data available.


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Bias and RMS values in latitudes from the comparison of VTEC maps by original solution and Project Loon based augmentation solution and the IGS final GIMs for DOY 152–181 in 2015.
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f8: Bias and RMS values in latitudes from the comparison of VTEC maps by original solution and Project Loon based augmentation solution and the IGS final GIMs for DOY 152–181 in 2015.

Mentions: The latitudinal performance of the enhanced ionospheric products based on simulation of Project Loon is also investigated. It is analyzed by comparing VTEC values in the same latitude with the IGS final GIMs as well as the GIMs from IAACs. As shown in Figs 8 and 9, the bias and RMS values of the differences of VTEC maps in latitudes between WHU products and IGS final GIMs as well as GIMs from IAACs are presented. As depicted in Fig. 8, there is an obvious change in the differences, especially the bias in southern latitudes. The bias between WHU_IRI and IGS GIMs are more closely to zero compared to WHU_ORG. Also, RMS values of the differences between WHU_IRI and IGS GIMs are very slight smaller than those between WHU_ORG and IGS GIMs in low latitudes. Figure 9(b) shows a similar situation of bias and RMS values of the differences between WHU products and GIMs from JPL. In contrast to before augmentation, the differences between WHU_IRI and GIMs from CODE, ESA and UPC become larger in terms of bias and RMS values presented in Fig. 9, especially in low and middle latitudes of Southern Hemisphere. The differences of VTEC maps depicted in the previous section for DOY 152–181, 2015 mainly come from the differences in southern latitudes where there are augmented measurements based on Project Loon with a simulation using IRI model.


Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling over Southern Hemisphere
Bias and RMS values in latitudes from the comparison of VTEC maps by original solution and Project Loon based augmentation solution and the IGS final GIMs for DOY 152–181 in 2015.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382668&req=5

f8: Bias and RMS values in latitudes from the comparison of VTEC maps by original solution and Project Loon based augmentation solution and the IGS final GIMs for DOY 152–181 in 2015.
Mentions: The latitudinal performance of the enhanced ionospheric products based on simulation of Project Loon is also investigated. It is analyzed by comparing VTEC values in the same latitude with the IGS final GIMs as well as the GIMs from IAACs. As shown in Figs 8 and 9, the bias and RMS values of the differences of VTEC maps in latitudes between WHU products and IGS final GIMs as well as GIMs from IAACs are presented. As depicted in Fig. 8, there is an obvious change in the differences, especially the bias in southern latitudes. The bias between WHU_IRI and IGS GIMs are more closely to zero compared to WHU_ORG. Also, RMS values of the differences between WHU_IRI and IGS GIMs are very slight smaller than those between WHU_ORG and IGS GIMs in low latitudes. Figure 9(b) shows a similar situation of bias and RMS values of the differences between WHU products and GIMs from JPL. In contrast to before augmentation, the differences between WHU_IRI and GIMs from CODE, ESA and UPC become larger in terms of bias and RMS values presented in Fig. 9, especially in low and middle latitudes of Southern Hemisphere. The differences of VTEC maps depicted in the previous section for DOY 152–181, 2015 mainly come from the differences in southern latitudes where there are augmented measurements based on Project Loon with a simulation using IRI model.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Global ionospheric products of vertical total electron content (VTEC) derived from GNSS measurements may have low accuracy over oceans and southern latitudes where there are not rich observations. Project Loon provides a great opportunity to enhance the measurements over those areas. In this contribution, a simulation of Project Loon based augmentation for global ionospheric modeling is performed by using the international reference ionosphere (IRI) which could simulate VTEC measurements for the balloons. The performance of the enhanced method based on simulation of Project Loon is investigated by comparing with VTEC maps from Ionosphere Associate Analysis Centers (IAACs) as well as IGS final GIMs. The comparison indicates that there is a better consistency between the VTEC maps by the enhanced method and IGS final GIMs. Also, obvious improvements of RMS maps in GIMs for the middle latitudes and southern latitudes are enabled by the augmentation of Project Loon. Additionally, JASON data are used to validate the specific improvement of the VTEC maps. The results show that the performance of VTEC maps is improved slightly, especially in southern latitudes. It is possible that the VTEC maps could be improved significantly by using real GPS measurements from balloons of Project Loon in the near future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus