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Standing sagittal alignment of the whole axial skeleton with reference to the gravity line in humans

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three‐dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot‐scanning 3D X‐ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population. The GL was defined as a vertical line drawn through the centre of vertical pressure measured by the force plate. The present study yielded a complete set of physiological alignment measurements of the standing axial skeleton from the database of 136 healthy subjects (a mean age of 39.7 years, 20–69 years; men: 40, women: 96). The mean offset of centre of the acoustic meati from the GL was 0.0 cm. The offset of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was posterior to the GL with the apex of thoracic kyphosis at T7, 5.0 cm posterior to the GL. The sagittal alignment changed to lordosis at the level of L2. The apex of the lumbar lordosis was L4, 0.6 cm anterior to the GL, and the centre of the base of the sacrum (CBS) was just posterior to the GL. The hip axis (HA) was 1.4 cm anterior to the GL. The knee joint was 2.4 cm posterior and the ankle joint was 4.8 cm posterior to the GL. L4‐, L5‐ and the CBS‐offset in subjects in the age decades of 40s, 50s and 60s were significantly posterior to those of subjects in their 20s. The L5‐ and CBS‐offset in subjects in their 50s and 60s were also significantly posterior to those in subjects in their 30s. HA was never posterior to the GL. In the global alignment, there was a positive correlation between offset of C7 vertebra from the sagittal vertical axis (a vertical line drawn through the posterior superior corner of the sacrum in the sagittal plane) and age, but no correlation was detected between the centre of the acoustic meati‐GL offset and age. Cervical lordosis (CL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence, hip extension, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion increased significantly with age. Our results revealed that aging induces trunk stooping, but the global alignment is compensated for by an increase in the CL, PT and knee flexion, with the main function of CL and PT to maintain a horizontal gaze in a healthy population.

No MeSH data available.


Measurement of the distance between all bony landmarks and the gravity line (GL).
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joa12586-fig-0003: Measurement of the distance between all bony landmarks and the gravity line (GL).

Mentions: The bony landmarks of the whole axial skeleton in the standing sagittal plane were determined in the lateral standing EOS image as follows (Fig. 3).


Standing sagittal alignment of the whole axial skeleton with reference to the gravity line in humans
Measurement of the distance between all bony landmarks and the gravity line (GL).
© Copyright Policy - creativeCommonsBy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382592&req=5

joa12586-fig-0003: Measurement of the distance between all bony landmarks and the gravity line (GL).
Mentions: The bony landmarks of the whole axial skeleton in the standing sagittal plane were determined in the lateral standing EOS image as follows (Fig. 3).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Human beings stand upright with the chain of balance beginning at the feet, progressing to the lower limbs (ankles, knees, hip joints, pelvis), each of the spinal segments, and then ending at the cranium to achieve horizontal gaze and balance using minimum muscle activity. The details of the alignment and balance of the chain, however, are not clearly understood, due to the lack of information regarding the three‐dimensional (3D) orientation of all bony elements in relation to the gravity line (GL). We performed a clinical study to clarify the standing sagittal alignment of whole axial skeletons in reference to the GL using the EOS slot‐scanning 3D X‐ray imaging system with simultaneous force plate measurement in a healthy human population. The GL was defined as a vertical line drawn through the centre of vertical pressure measured by the force plate. The present study yielded a complete set of physiological alignment measurements of the standing axial skeleton from the database of 136 healthy subjects (a mean age of 39.7 years, 20–69 years; men: 40, women: 96). The mean offset of centre of the acoustic meati from the GL was 0.0 cm. The offset of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae was posterior to the GL with the apex of thoracic kyphosis at T7, 5.0 cm posterior to the GL. The sagittal alignment changed to lordosis at the level of L2. The apex of the lumbar lordosis was L4, 0.6 cm anterior to the GL, and the centre of the base of the sacrum (CBS) was just posterior to the GL. The hip axis (HA) was 1.4 cm anterior to the GL. The knee joint was 2.4 cm posterior and the ankle joint was 4.8 cm posterior to the GL. L4‐, L5‐ and the CBS‐offset in subjects in the age decades of 40s, 50s and 60s were significantly posterior to those of subjects in their 20s. The L5‐ and CBS‐offset in subjects in their 50s and 60s were also significantly posterior to those in subjects in their 30s. HA was never posterior to the GL. In the global alignment, there was a positive correlation between offset of C7 vertebra from the sagittal vertical axis (a vertical line drawn through the posterior superior corner of the sacrum in the sagittal plane) and age, but no correlation was detected between the centre of the acoustic meati‐GL offset and age. Cervical lordosis (CL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence, hip extension, knee flexion and ankle dorsiflexion increased significantly with age. Our results revealed that aging induces trunk stooping, but the global alignment is compensated for by an increase in the CL, PT and knee flexion, with the main function of CL and PT to maintain a horizontal gaze in a healthy population.

No MeSH data available.