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Lameness in piglets – should pain killers be included at treatment?

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Joint swelling and lameness are the most obvious and persistent clinical signs of infectious arthritis in piglets. For a positive treatment effect of piglets with arthritis, early initiated treatments with antibiotics are desired. Hitherto pain-reducing drugs have rarely been used within veterinary medicine, but the potential of non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are interesting from an animal welfare perspective. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the long term efficiency of treating lameness with and without pain relief. Further, the incidences of affected joints in lame piglets were analysed.

Results: In total 415 of the 6,787 liveborn piglets included in the study were diagnosed with lameness (6.1 %). Around 86 % of these diagnoses took place during the first 3 weeks of life. There was no difference in the incidence of lameness between the sexes, but lameness was most commonly diagnosed in the offspring to old sows (>4 parturitions). Lameness was diagnosed in about every second litter and on average about two pigs were diagnosed in the affected litters. The incidence of affected litters as well as affected piglets increased with ageing of the sows.

Results: Treatments with antibiotics solely and in combination with NSAID improved (P < 0.01 to 0.001) the clinical status from day to day, but the clinical response did not differ between the two treatment groups.

Results: Piglets that remained healthy were 1.1 and 1.7 kg heavier (P < 0.001) than piglets diagnosed with lameness at 5 and 9 weeks of age, respectively. There were no differences in piglet body weights between the treatment strategies at any time.

Conclusions: The clinical response to penicillin was good. It was neither improved nor reduced by a concurrent administration of NSAIDs. Nevertheless NSAIDs may improve the animal welfare due to pain relief. An important finding of this study was that decreasing pain due to lameness not was negative in a long term perspective, i.e. reducing pain did not lead to overstrain of affected joints and no clinical signs of adverse effects were noted. Therefore the use of NSAIDs ought to be considered to improve the animal welfare, at least in severe cases.

No MeSH data available.


The clinical score of lame piglets following treatment initiated on day 1. The clinical score of lame piglets treated with penicillin solely (grey dotted lines) compared to pigs treated with penicillin and NSAID (black lines). The decreasing prevalence of lame pigs with severe signs (diagnose code 3; squares) initially increased the prevalence of pigs with major clinical sigs (diagnose code 2; diamonds) from 25 to 40 %, but at day 5 also the prevalence of this diagnose had ceased somewhat (top). As a consequence, increasing levels of almost healthy (diagnose code 1; triangles) or healthy piglets (diagnose code 0; circles) were denoted (bottom). Note the different scales on the y-angles
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Fig1: The clinical score of lame piglets following treatment initiated on day 1. The clinical score of lame piglets treated with penicillin solely (grey dotted lines) compared to pigs treated with penicillin and NSAID (black lines). The decreasing prevalence of lame pigs with severe signs (diagnose code 3; squares) initially increased the prevalence of pigs with major clinical sigs (diagnose code 2; diamonds) from 25 to 40 %, but at day 5 also the prevalence of this diagnose had ceased somewhat (top). As a consequence, increasing levels of almost healthy (diagnose code 1; triangles) or healthy piglets (diagnose code 0; circles) were denoted (bottom). Note the different scales on the y-angles

Mentions: Both treatment strategies, with penicillin solely or with penicillin in combination with NSAIDs, improved (P < 0.01 to 0.001) the clinical status (i.e. improved lameness score) from day to day but the treatment efficacy did not differ between the groups. Approximately 75 % of the piglets diagnosed with lameness was scored with severe signs of lameness (score 3) at the onset of treatment while 50 % were scored healthy or almost healthy (score 0 or 1) day 5 of treatment. The treatment efficacy is illustrated in Fig. 1, showing the day to day prevalence of piglets within the different diagnose codes.Fig. 1


Lameness in piglets – should pain killers be included at treatment?
The clinical score of lame piglets following treatment initiated on day 1. The clinical score of lame piglets treated with penicillin solely (grey dotted lines) compared to pigs treated with penicillin and NSAID (black lines). The decreasing prevalence of lame pigs with severe signs (diagnose code 3; squares) initially increased the prevalence of pigs with major clinical sigs (diagnose code 2; diamonds) from 25 to 40 %, but at day 5 also the prevalence of this diagnose had ceased somewhat (top). As a consequence, increasing levels of almost healthy (diagnose code 1; triangles) or healthy piglets (diagnose code 0; circles) were denoted (bottom). Note the different scales on the y-angles
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382549&req=5

Fig1: The clinical score of lame piglets following treatment initiated on day 1. The clinical score of lame piglets treated with penicillin solely (grey dotted lines) compared to pigs treated with penicillin and NSAID (black lines). The decreasing prevalence of lame pigs with severe signs (diagnose code 3; squares) initially increased the prevalence of pigs with major clinical sigs (diagnose code 2; diamonds) from 25 to 40 %, but at day 5 also the prevalence of this diagnose had ceased somewhat (top). As a consequence, increasing levels of almost healthy (diagnose code 1; triangles) or healthy piglets (diagnose code 0; circles) were denoted (bottom). Note the different scales on the y-angles
Mentions: Both treatment strategies, with penicillin solely or with penicillin in combination with NSAIDs, improved (P < 0.01 to 0.001) the clinical status (i.e. improved lameness score) from day to day but the treatment efficacy did not differ between the groups. Approximately 75 % of the piglets diagnosed with lameness was scored with severe signs of lameness (score 3) at the onset of treatment while 50 % were scored healthy or almost healthy (score 0 or 1) day 5 of treatment. The treatment efficacy is illustrated in Fig. 1, showing the day to day prevalence of piglets within the different diagnose codes.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Joint swelling and lameness are the most obvious and persistent clinical signs of infectious arthritis in piglets. For a positive treatment effect of piglets with arthritis, early initiated treatments with antibiotics are desired. Hitherto pain-reducing drugs have rarely been used within veterinary medicine, but the potential of non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are interesting from an animal welfare perspective. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the long term efficiency of treating lameness with and without pain relief. Further, the incidences of affected joints in lame piglets were analysed.

Results: In total 415 of the 6,787 liveborn piglets included in the study were diagnosed with lameness (6.1&nbsp;%). Around 86&nbsp;% of these diagnoses took place during the first 3&nbsp;weeks of life. There was no difference in the incidence of lameness between the sexes, but lameness was most commonly diagnosed in the offspring to old sows (&gt;4 parturitions). Lameness was diagnosed in about every second litter and on average about two pigs were diagnosed in the affected litters. The incidence of affected litters as well as affected piglets increased with ageing of the sows.

Results: Treatments with antibiotics solely and in combination with NSAID improved (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.01 to 0.001) the clinical status from day to day, but the clinical response did not differ between the two treatment groups.

Results: Piglets that remained healthy were 1.1 and 1.7&nbsp;kg heavier (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001) than piglets diagnosed with lameness at 5 and 9&nbsp;weeks of age, respectively. There were no differences in piglet body weights between the treatment strategies at any time.

Conclusions: The clinical response to penicillin was good. It was neither improved nor reduced by a concurrent administration of NSAIDs. Nevertheless NSAIDs may improve the animal welfare due to pain relief. An important finding of this study was that decreasing pain due to lameness not was negative in a long term perspective, i.e. reducing pain did not lead to overstrain of affected joints and no clinical signs of adverse effects were noted. Therefore the use of NSAIDs ought to be considered to improve the animal welfare, at least in severe cases.

No MeSH data available.