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Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology to optimize thiacloprid suspension

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A model 25% suspension concentrate (SC) of thiacloprid was adopted to evaluate an integrative approach of uniform design and response surface methodology. Tersperse2700, PE1601, xanthan gum and veegum were the four experimental factors, and the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were the two dependent variables. Linear and quadratic polynomial models of stepwise regression and partial least squares were adopted to test the fit of the experimental data. Verification tests revealed satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted data. The measured values for the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were 3.45% and 278.8 mPa·s, respectively, and the relative errors of the predicted values were 9.57% and 2.65%, respectively (prepared under the proposed conditions). Comprehensive benefits could also be obtained by appropriately adjusting the amount of certain adjuvants based on practical requirements. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology is an effective strategy for optimizing SC formulas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Predicted and actual values of the aqueous separation ratio.
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f2: Predicted and actual values of the aqueous separation ratio.

Mentions: This result is further confirmed by Fig. 2, in which the predicted and actual values are regressed. The predicted values were generated after calculating the amounts of X1, X2, X3 and X4 using Equation 1. As depicted in Fig. 2, the empirical equation fits the experimental data well. We sought to decrease the aqueous separation ratio as much as possible to obtain adequate physical stability for the SC. It was clear that the aqueous separation ratio decreased as the amounts of X1, X2 or X3 increased, regardless of the other independent variables. In terms of X4, the prediction of the aqueous separation ratio became more complicated. When 0.22% X3 was added (highest level) and X1 and X2 were at the optimal levels, the aqueous separation ratio decreased with increasing amount of X4. When 0.14% X3 was added (lowest level) and X1 and X2 were at the optimal levels, the equation could be simplified to “Y = 6.080(X4 −1.430)2 −5.746”. Clearly, the addition of more than 1.43% X4 would increase the aqueous separation ratio. Further research should explore whether there are more visual and/or convenient methods for obtaining favourable conditions.


Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology to optimize thiacloprid suspension
Predicted and actual values of the aqueous separation ratio.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382544&req=5

f2: Predicted and actual values of the aqueous separation ratio.
Mentions: This result is further confirmed by Fig. 2, in which the predicted and actual values are regressed. The predicted values were generated after calculating the amounts of X1, X2, X3 and X4 using Equation 1. As depicted in Fig. 2, the empirical equation fits the experimental data well. We sought to decrease the aqueous separation ratio as much as possible to obtain adequate physical stability for the SC. It was clear that the aqueous separation ratio decreased as the amounts of X1, X2 or X3 increased, regardless of the other independent variables. In terms of X4, the prediction of the aqueous separation ratio became more complicated. When 0.22% X3 was added (highest level) and X1 and X2 were at the optimal levels, the aqueous separation ratio decreased with increasing amount of X4. When 0.14% X3 was added (lowest level) and X1 and X2 were at the optimal levels, the equation could be simplified to “Y = 6.080(X4 −1.430)2 −5.746”. Clearly, the addition of more than 1.43% X4 would increase the aqueous separation ratio. Further research should explore whether there are more visual and/or convenient methods for obtaining favourable conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

A model 25% suspension concentrate (SC) of thiacloprid was adopted to evaluate an integrative approach of uniform design and response surface methodology. Tersperse2700, PE1601, xanthan gum and veegum were the four experimental factors, and the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were the two dependent variables. Linear and quadratic polynomial models of stepwise regression and partial least squares were adopted to test the fit of the experimental data. Verification tests revealed satisfactory agreement between the experimental and predicted data. The measured values for the aqueous separation ratio and viscosity were 3.45% and 278.8 mPa·s, respectively, and the relative errors of the predicted values were 9.57% and 2.65%, respectively (prepared under the proposed conditions). Comprehensive benefits could also be obtained by appropriately adjusting the amount of certain adjuvants based on practical requirements. Integrating uniform design and response surface methodology is an effective strategy for optimizing SC formulas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus