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Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Phylogenetic analyses of the odorant receptor genes of bed bugs, kissing bugs and stink bugs.All 47 bed bug ORs (shown in pink) were retrieved from the bed bug genome annotation (www.hasc.org); the 76 ORs from the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus, shown in blue) were retrieved from Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org); and the 133 ORs from the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, shown in green) were retrieved from the NCBI website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The tree was constructed with MEGA6 based on a ClustalW alignment of the amino acid sequences. Numbers above branches represent the percentage of 1,000 bootstrap replication trees in that branch, with only those above 50% shown.
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f1: Phylogenetic analyses of the odorant receptor genes of bed bugs, kissing bugs and stink bugs.All 47 bed bug ORs (shown in pink) were retrieved from the bed bug genome annotation (www.hasc.org); the 76 ORs from the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus, shown in blue) were retrieved from Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org); and the 133 ORs from the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, shown in green) were retrieved from the NCBI website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The tree was constructed with MEGA6 based on a ClustalW alignment of the amino acid sequences. Numbers above branches represent the percentage of 1,000 bootstrap replication trees in that branch, with only those above 50% shown.

Mentions: Based on the existing genomic data, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the ORs of two hematophagous Hemipterans, the common bed bug (C. lectularius) and the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus), and one phytophagous Hemipteran, the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys). The 47 bed bug ORs were used to build a phylogenetic tree with 72 ORs from the kissing bug (www.vectorbase.org) and 133 ORs from the stink bug (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). According to this phylogenetic tree, odorant receptor co-receptor (ORCO) genes from all three organisms are clustered together due to their highly conserved amino acid sequence (Fig. 1). Specific OR gene expansion was observed in both kissing bugs and stink bugs, with at least two branches of ORs specifically evolved in stink bugs, which may be relevant to their phytophagy comparing to bed bugs and kissing bugs, and one branch of kissing bug ORs showed no close relatives from bed bugs or stink bugs. However, we found that no bed bug-specific OR gene expansion was demonstrated in the phylogenetic tree. Most of the bed bug ORs were clearly clustered with specific ORs from either kissing bugs or stink bugs, which suggests a slow rate of evolution in the bed bug OR gene family. The relatively conservative nature of OR gene family also suggests a comparatively stable chemosensory ecology in bed bugs, which may result from their obligate blood-feeding requirement, narrow host spectrum and relatively simple habitat environment (always close to their hosts).


Molecular Basis of Olfactory Chemoreception in the Common Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius
Phylogenetic analyses of the odorant receptor genes of bed bugs, kissing bugs and stink bugs.All 47 bed bug ORs (shown in pink) were retrieved from the bed bug genome annotation (www.hasc.org); the 76 ORs from the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus, shown in blue) were retrieved from Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org); and the 133 ORs from the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, shown in green) were retrieved from the NCBI website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The tree was constructed with MEGA6 based on a ClustalW alignment of the amino acid sequences. Numbers above branches represent the percentage of 1,000 bootstrap replication trees in that branch, with only those above 50% shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382537&req=5

f1: Phylogenetic analyses of the odorant receptor genes of bed bugs, kissing bugs and stink bugs.All 47 bed bug ORs (shown in pink) were retrieved from the bed bug genome annotation (www.hasc.org); the 76 ORs from the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus, shown in blue) were retrieved from Vectorbase (www.vectorbase.org); and the 133 ORs from the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys, shown in green) were retrieved from the NCBI website (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The tree was constructed with MEGA6 based on a ClustalW alignment of the amino acid sequences. Numbers above branches represent the percentage of 1,000 bootstrap replication trees in that branch, with only those above 50% shown.
Mentions: Based on the existing genomic data, we performed phylogenetic analyses of the ORs of two hematophagous Hemipterans, the common bed bug (C. lectularius) and the kissing bug (Rhodnius proxilus), and one phytophagous Hemipteran, the stink bug (Halyomorpha halys). The 47 bed bug ORs were used to build a phylogenetic tree with 72 ORs from the kissing bug (www.vectorbase.org) and 133 ORs from the stink bug (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). According to this phylogenetic tree, odorant receptor co-receptor (ORCO) genes from all three organisms are clustered together due to their highly conserved amino acid sequence (Fig. 1). Specific OR gene expansion was observed in both kissing bugs and stink bugs, with at least two branches of ORs specifically evolved in stink bugs, which may be relevant to their phytophagy comparing to bed bugs and kissing bugs, and one branch of kissing bug ORs showed no close relatives from bed bugs or stink bugs. However, we found that no bed bug-specific OR gene expansion was demonstrated in the phylogenetic tree. Most of the bed bug ORs were clearly clustered with specific ORs from either kissing bugs or stink bugs, which suggests a slow rate of evolution in the bed bug OR gene family. The relatively conservative nature of OR gene family also suggests a comparatively stable chemosensory ecology in bed bugs, which may result from their obligate blood-feeding requirement, narrow host spectrum and relatively simple habitat environment (always close to their hosts).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

As one of the most notorious ectoparasites, bed bugs rely heavily on human or animal blood sources for survival, mating and reproduction. Chemoreception, mediated by the odorant receptors on the membrane of olfactory sensory neurons, plays a vital role in their host seeking and risk aversion processes. We investigated the responses of odorant receptors to a large spectrum of semiochemicals, including human odorants and plant-released volatiles and found that strong responses were sparse; aldehydes/ketones were the most efficient stimuli, while carboxylic acids and aliphatics/aromatics were comparatively less effective in eliciting responses from bed bug odorant receptors. In bed bugs, both the odorant identity and concentrations play important roles in determining the strength of these responses. The odor space constructed based on the responses from all the odorant receptors tested revealed that odorants within the same chemical group are widely dispersed while odorants from different groups are intermingled, suggesting the complexity of odorant encoding in the bed bug odorant receptors. This study provides a comprehensive picture of the olfactory coding mechanisms of bed bugs that will ultimately contribute to the design and development of novel olfactory-based strategies to reduce both the biting nuisance and disease transmission from bed bugs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus