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Factors affecting the daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio of pigs in grow-finishing units: the case of a company

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to use mathematical modeling to identify and quantify the main factors that affect daily feed intake (DFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in grow-finishing (GF) pig units. We evaluated the production records of 93 GF farms between 2010 and 2013, linked to a company, working in a cooperative system, located in western Paraná State, Brazil. A total of 683 batches, consisting of approximately 495,000 animals, were used. Forty production factors related to the management, health, plant and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment were considered. The number of pigs per pen, type of feeder, origin and sex (the last two variables were combined in the models) of the animals and initial and final body weights were included in the final models to predict DFI and FCR (dependent variables). Additionally, the duration of the GF phase was included for the parameter FCR. All factors included in the final models had significant effects for both dependent variables.

Results: There was a reduction in DFI (0.04 kg) (P < 0.001) and an improvement in FCR (6.0 points) (P < 0.001) in batches from pens with less than 20 animals compared with batches from pens with more than 20 animals. In barns with “other” feeder types (mostly the linear dump type) different of conical semiautomatic feeder, a reduction of DFI (0.03 kg) (P < 0.05) and improved FCR (3.0 points) (P < 0.05) were observed. Batches of barrows from units specialized for producing piglets (SPU) had higher DFI (approximately 0.02 kg) (P < 0.01) than batches of females and batches of mixed animals from SPU, and batches of mixed animals from farms not specialized for piglet production (farrow-to-finish farms). Batches of females from SPU and mixed batches from SPU had better FCR (5.0 and 3.0 points respectively) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) than batches of piglets originating from farrow-to-finish farms. The variables selected for the final models explained approximately 50 and 64 % of the total variance in DFI and FCR, respectively.

Conclusions: The models are tools for the interpretation of the factors related to the evaluated parameters, aiding in the identification of critical aspects of production. The main parameters affecting DFI and FCR in this company during the GF period were the number of pigs per pen, the type of feeder used and the combination origin-sex of the animals.

No MeSH data available.


Residual distribution of the effects of the factors studied on daily feed intake in 683 batches from 93 grow-finishing pig farms
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Fig1: Residual distribution of the effects of the factors studied on daily feed intake in 683 batches from 93 grow-finishing pig farms

Mentions: The DFI per pig per batch was 2.15 ± 0.10 kg (ranging from 1.82 to 2.48 kg) (Table 1). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that DFI was influenced by the number of pigs per pen (P < 0.001), type of feeder (P = 0.03), ORIGSEX (P = 0.01), IW (P < 0.001) and FW (P < 0.001) (Table 3). The total variance of DFI in the model without predictors (the model) was 0.009541, where 0.00346 (36.3 %) was observed between farms and 0.006081 (63.7 %) between batches from the same farm. After the variables were included in the multivariate model, the residual variance for the DFI was reduced to 0.004806, which indicated that approximately 50 % of the total variance of DFI was explained by the variables included in the final model (Table 4). The residual distribution of DFI is highlighted in Fig. 1. The percentages of the variance explained between farms and between batches within a farm, using the final model for DFI, were 60.8 and 43.3 %, respectively (Table 4).Table 3


Factors affecting the daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio of pigs in grow-finishing units: the case of a company
Residual distribution of the effects of the factors studied on daily feed intake in 683 batches from 93 grow-finishing pig farms
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382519&req=5

Fig1: Residual distribution of the effects of the factors studied on daily feed intake in 683 batches from 93 grow-finishing pig farms
Mentions: The DFI per pig per batch was 2.15 ± 0.10 kg (ranging from 1.82 to 2.48 kg) (Table 1). Multivariate regression analysis indicated that DFI was influenced by the number of pigs per pen (P < 0.001), type of feeder (P = 0.03), ORIGSEX (P = 0.01), IW (P < 0.001) and FW (P < 0.001) (Table 3). The total variance of DFI in the model without predictors (the model) was 0.009541, where 0.00346 (36.3 %) was observed between farms and 0.006081 (63.7 %) between batches from the same farm. After the variables were included in the multivariate model, the residual variance for the DFI was reduced to 0.004806, which indicated that approximately 50 % of the total variance of DFI was explained by the variables included in the final model (Table 4). The residual distribution of DFI is highlighted in Fig. 1. The percentages of the variance explained between farms and between batches within a farm, using the final model for DFI, were 60.8 and 43.3 %, respectively (Table 4).Table 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The aim of this study was to use mathematical modeling to identify and quantify the main factors that affect daily feed intake (DFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in grow-finishing (GF) pig units. We evaluated the production records of 93 GF farms between 2010 and 2013, linked to a company, working in a cooperative system, located in western Paran&aacute; State, Brazil. A total of 683 batches, consisting of approximately 495,000 animals, were used. Forty production factors related to the management, health, plant and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment were considered. The number of pigs per pen, type of feeder, origin and sex (the last two variables were combined in the models) of the animals and initial and final body weights were included in the final models to predict DFI and FCR (dependent variables). Additionally, the duration of the GF phase was included for the parameter FCR. All factors included in the final models had significant effects for both dependent variables.

Results: There was a reduction in DFI (0.04&nbsp;kg) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001) and an improvement in FCR (6.0 points) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001) in batches from pens with less than 20 animals compared with batches from pens with more than 20 animals. In barns with &ldquo;other&rdquo; feeder types (mostly the linear dump type) different of conical semiautomatic feeder, a reduction of DFI (0.03&nbsp;kg) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.05) and improved FCR (3.0 points) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.05) were observed. Batches of barrows from units specialized for producing piglets (SPU) had higher DFI (approximately 0.02&nbsp;kg) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.01) than batches of females and batches of mixed animals from SPU, and batches of mixed animals from farms not specialized for piglet production (farrow-to-finish farms). Batches of females from SPU and mixed batches from SPU had better FCR (5.0 and 3.0 points respectively) (P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001 and P&thinsp;&lt;&thinsp;0.001, respectively) than batches of piglets originating from farrow-to-finish farms. The variables selected for the final models explained approximately 50 and 64&nbsp;% of the total variance in DFI and FCR, respectively.

Conclusions: The models are tools for the interpretation of the factors related to the evaluated parameters, aiding in the identification of critical aspects of production. The main parameters affecting DFI and FCR in this company during the GF period were the number of pigs per pen, the type of feeder used and the combination origin-sex of the animals.

No MeSH data available.