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Evaluation of biosecurity measures to prevent indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The effectiveness of biosecurity methods to mitigate the transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) via farm personnel or contaminated fomites is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting.

Results: PEDV RNA was detected from rectal swabs of experimentally infected (INF) and sentinel pigs by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Virus shedding in INF pigs peaked at 1 day post infection (dpi) and viral RNA levels remained elevated through 19 dpi. Sentinel pigs in the low biosecurity group (LB) became PEDV positive after the first movement of study personnel from the INF group. However, rectal swabs from pigs in the medium biosecurity (MB) and high biosecurity (HB) groups were negative during the 10 consecutive days of movements and remained negative through 24 days post movement (dpm) when the first trial was terminated.

Results: Viral RNA was detected at 1 dpm through 3 dpm from the personal protective equipment (PPE) of LB personnel. In addition, at 1 dpm, 2 hair/face swabs from MB personnel were positive; however, transmission of virus was not detected. All swabs of fomite from the HB study personnel were negative.

Conclusions: These results indicate that indirect PEDV transmission through contaminated PPE occurs rapidly (within 24 h) under modeled conditions. Biosecurity procedures such as changing PPE, washing exposed skin areas, or taking a shower are recommended for pig production systems and appear to be an effective option for lowering the risk of PEDV transmission between groups of pigs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Viral shedding of pigs (2nd trial). Movements were terminated at 10 dpi. Data presented are average values of viral RNA copies (± SD) of infected source group (INF) (n = 4), low biosecurity group (LB) (n = 4), and medium biosecurity group (MB) (n = 12)
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Fig3: Viral shedding of pigs (2nd trial). Movements were terminated at 10 dpi. Data presented are average values of viral RNA copies (± SD) of infected source group (INF) (n = 4), low biosecurity group (LB) (n = 4), and medium biosecurity group (MB) (n = 12)

Mentions: In both studies, pigs had limited clinical signs of diarrhea. Diarrhea was mild and transient in about half of the pigs. In both studies, PEDV RNA was detected by rRT-PCR from rectal swabs of pigs in the INF group at 1-day post infection (dpi), indicative of virus shedding from inoculated pigs. Rectal swabs of direct contact sentinel pigs, co-housed with the INF group in both trials, tested rRT-PCR positive at 2 dpi (Tables 2 and 3), 1 day after virus was detected in inoculated pigs. Virus shedding in pigs of the INF group, measured as viral RNA copies per rectal swab, peaked at 1 dpi and viral RNA levels remained elevated through 19 dpi (Fig. 2). During the 2nd trial, rectal swabs of INF pigs remained positive until 12 dpm when that experiment was terminated (Fig. 3).Table 2


Evaluation of biosecurity measures to prevent indirect transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus
Viral shedding of pigs (2nd trial). Movements were terminated at 10 dpi. Data presented are average values of viral RNA copies (± SD) of infected source group (INF) (n = 4), low biosecurity group (LB) (n = 4), and medium biosecurity group (MB) (n = 12)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382501&req=5

Fig3: Viral shedding of pigs (2nd trial). Movements were terminated at 10 dpi. Data presented are average values of viral RNA copies (± SD) of infected source group (INF) (n = 4), low biosecurity group (LB) (n = 4), and medium biosecurity group (MB) (n = 12)
Mentions: In both studies, pigs had limited clinical signs of diarrhea. Diarrhea was mild and transient in about half of the pigs. In both studies, PEDV RNA was detected by rRT-PCR from rectal swabs of pigs in the INF group at 1-day post infection (dpi), indicative of virus shedding from inoculated pigs. Rectal swabs of direct contact sentinel pigs, co-housed with the INF group in both trials, tested rRT-PCR positive at 2 dpi (Tables 2 and 3), 1 day after virus was detected in inoculated pigs. Virus shedding in pigs of the INF group, measured as viral RNA copies per rectal swab, peaked at 1 dpi and viral RNA levels remained elevated through 19 dpi (Fig. 2). During the 2nd trial, rectal swabs of INF pigs remained positive until 12 dpm when that experiment was terminated (Fig. 3).Table 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: The effectiveness of biosecurity methods to mitigate the transmission of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) via farm personnel or contaminated fomites is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of biosecurity procedures directed at minimizing transmission via personnel following different biosecurity protocols using a controlled experimental setting.

Results: PEDV RNA was detected from rectal swabs of experimentally infected (INF) and sentinel pigs by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). Virus shedding in INF pigs peaked at 1 day post infection (dpi) and viral RNA levels remained elevated through 19 dpi. Sentinel pigs in the low biosecurity group (LB) became PEDV positive after the first movement of study personnel from the INF group. However, rectal swabs from pigs in the medium biosecurity (MB) and high biosecurity (HB) groups were negative during the 10 consecutive days of movements and remained negative through 24 days post movement (dpm) when the first trial was terminated.

Results: Viral RNA was detected at 1 dpm through 3 dpm from the personal protective equipment (PPE) of LB personnel. In addition, at 1 dpm, 2 hair/face swabs from MB personnel were positive; however, transmission of virus was not detected. All swabs of fomite from the HB study personnel were negative.

Conclusions: These results indicate that indirect PEDV transmission through contaminated PPE occurs rapidly (within 24 h) under modeled conditions. Biosecurity procedures such as changing PPE, washing exposed skin areas, or taking a shower are recommended for pig production systems and appear to be an effective option for lowering the risk of PEDV transmission between groups of pigs.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus