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Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis ) across their geographic range

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history.

Results: The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect.

Conclusions: Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0945-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Beta diversity found in Polyrhachis samples rarefied to a read depth of 400 (50% of samples). Note that after this depth only 64 samples remained. a UPGMA tree (unweighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis. Through the tree it is possible to visualize that were grouped samples of several subgenera and distinct localities. b PCoA plots (weighted UniFrac method) of bacterial communities associated with Polyrhachis at the 97% OTU level. Axis 1 = 70.22% and axis 2 = 22.35%. The dots were colored according to the subgenera they belong to. Note that although not fully clustered, there is a certain ordering of subgenera, indicating that host phylogeny plays an important role in structuring the bacterial community
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Fig3: Beta diversity found in Polyrhachis samples rarefied to a read depth of 400 (50% of samples). Note that after this depth only 64 samples remained. a UPGMA tree (unweighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis. Through the tree it is possible to visualize that were grouped samples of several subgenera and distinct localities. b PCoA plots (weighted UniFrac method) of bacterial communities associated with Polyrhachis at the 97% OTU level. Axis 1 = 70.22% and axis 2 = 22.35%. The dots were colored according to the subgenera they belong to. Note that although not fully clustered, there is a certain ordering of subgenera, indicating that host phylogeny plays an important role in structuring the bacterial community

Mentions: Through analysis of beta diversity (matrices UniFrac weighted distance, depth 400 (50% of samples)) we find similarity of the bacterial communities from these samples. The UPGMA tree (Weighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis grouped samples of different subgenera and biogeography, but we realized that the samples were grouped according to high infection of different bacteria (Figs. 3a and 4). Variation among samples in their bacterial taxonomic composition was visualized using constrained principal coordinates analyses (Fig. 3b). The average Jaccard dissimilarity metric was 0.91, which suggests only a few bacterial community members were shared among all individuals of Polyrhachis. Also, we found no significant changes in the composition (Soresen index) of the bacterial community of Polyrhachis (R = 0 and P = 1). That is, different subgenera do not have significantly different bacteria. But there was an effect of the structure of the bacterial community (Bray-Curtis index, stress 0.044, R = 0.2205 and P = 0.0003) when all subgenera were compared. In the analysis of the subgenera in pairs, it was not possible to identify significant results.Fig. 3


Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis ) across their geographic range
Beta diversity found in Polyrhachis samples rarefied to a read depth of 400 (50% of samples). Note that after this depth only 64 samples remained. a UPGMA tree (unweighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis. Through the tree it is possible to visualize that were grouped samples of several subgenera and distinct localities. b PCoA plots (weighted UniFrac method) of bacterial communities associated with Polyrhachis at the 97% OTU level. Axis 1 = 70.22% and axis 2 = 22.35%. The dots were colored according to the subgenera they belong to. Note that although not fully clustered, there is a certain ordering of subgenera, indicating that host phylogeny plays an important role in structuring the bacterial community
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382451&req=5

Fig3: Beta diversity found in Polyrhachis samples rarefied to a read depth of 400 (50% of samples). Note that after this depth only 64 samples remained. a UPGMA tree (unweighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis. Through the tree it is possible to visualize that were grouped samples of several subgenera and distinct localities. b PCoA plots (weighted UniFrac method) of bacterial communities associated with Polyrhachis at the 97% OTU level. Axis 1 = 70.22% and axis 2 = 22.35%. The dots were colored according to the subgenera they belong to. Note that although not fully clustered, there is a certain ordering of subgenera, indicating that host phylogeny plays an important role in structuring the bacterial community
Mentions: Through analysis of beta diversity (matrices UniFrac weighted distance, depth 400 (50% of samples)) we find similarity of the bacterial communities from these samples. The UPGMA tree (Weighted UniFrac method) of the entire bacterial community of Polyrhachis grouped samples of different subgenera and biogeography, but we realized that the samples were grouped according to high infection of different bacteria (Figs. 3a and 4). Variation among samples in their bacterial taxonomic composition was visualized using constrained principal coordinates analyses (Fig. 3b). The average Jaccard dissimilarity metric was 0.91, which suggests only a few bacterial community members were shared among all individuals of Polyrhachis. Also, we found no significant changes in the composition (Soresen index) of the bacterial community of Polyrhachis (R = 0 and P = 1). That is, different subgenera do not have significantly different bacteria. But there was an effect of the structure of the bacterial community (Bray-Curtis index, stress 0.044, R = 0.2205 and P = 0.0003) when all subgenera were compared. In the analysis of the subgenera in pairs, it was not possible to identify significant results.Fig. 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history.

Results: The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect.

Conclusions: Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0945-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus