Limits...
Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis ) across their geographic range

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history.

Results: The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect.

Conclusions: Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0945-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rarefaction curves were used to estimate richness in the observed OTUs. The vertical axis shows the bacterial OTUs observed and the number of sequences per sample is shown on the horizontal axis. Note that although sequencing covers thousands of Illumina reads, some samples have not reached the plateau
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382451&req=5

Fig2: Rarefaction curves were used to estimate richness in the observed OTUs. The vertical axis shows the bacterial OTUs observed and the number of sequences per sample is shown on the horizontal axis. Note that although sequencing covers thousands of Illumina reads, some samples have not reached the plateau

Mentions: Alpha diversity (Chao1, PD whole tree, observed OTUs, Simpson and Shannon) observed across Polyrhachis individuals was not high. For the remaining samples at sequencing depth of 400, we recovered high variation of diversity [Additional file 5: Table S4]. Likely due to the small amount of sequence for these samples, we did not obtain significant results when comparing differences in OTU richness among host subgenera. Through the rarefaction curve analysis of observed OTUs, our sequencing coverage of the bacterial communities appears satisfactorily for most samples, but even with the thousands of Illumina sequence reads, sampling was not sufficient to achieve a plateau for all specimens (Fig. 2).Fig. 2


Microbial composition of spiny ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Polyrhachis ) across their geographic range
Rarefaction curves were used to estimate richness in the observed OTUs. The vertical axis shows the bacterial OTUs observed and the number of sequences per sample is shown on the horizontal axis. Note that although sequencing covers thousands of Illumina reads, some samples have not reached the plateau
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382451&req=5

Fig2: Rarefaction curves were used to estimate richness in the observed OTUs. The vertical axis shows the bacterial OTUs observed and the number of sequences per sample is shown on the horizontal axis. Note that although sequencing covers thousands of Illumina reads, some samples have not reached the plateau
Mentions: Alpha diversity (Chao1, PD whole tree, observed OTUs, Simpson and Shannon) observed across Polyrhachis individuals was not high. For the remaining samples at sequencing depth of 400, we recovered high variation of diversity [Additional file 5: Table S4]. Likely due to the small amount of sequence for these samples, we did not obtain significant results when comparing differences in OTU richness among host subgenera. Through the rarefaction curve analysis of observed OTUs, our sequencing coverage of the bacterial communities appears satisfactorily for most samples, but even with the thousands of Illumina sequence reads, sampling was not sufficient to achieve a plateau for all specimens (Fig. 2).Fig. 2

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Symbiotic relationships between insects and bacteria are found across almost all insect orders, including Hymenoptera. However there are still many remaining questions about these associations including what factors drive host-associated bacterial composition. To better understand the evolutionary significance of this association in nature, further studies addressing a diversity of hosts across locations and evolutionary history are necessary. Ants of the genus Polyrhachis (spiny ants) are distributed across the Old World and exhibit generalist diets and habits. Using Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and bioinformatics tools, this study explores the microbial community of >80 species of Polyrhachis distributed across the Old World and compares the microbiota of samples and related hosts across different biogeographic locations and in the context of their phylogenetic history.

Results: The predominant bacteria across samples were Enterobacteriaceae (Blochmannia - with likely many new strains), followed by Wolbachia (with multiple strains), Lactobacillus, Thiotrichaceae, Acinetobacter, Nocardia, Sodalis, and others. We recovered some exclusive strains of Enterobacteriaceae as specific to some subgenera of Polyrhachis, corroborating the idea of coevolution between host and bacteria for this bacterial group. Our correlation results (partial mantel and mantel tests) found that host phylogeny can influence the overall bacterial community, but that geographic location had no effect.

Conclusions: Our work is revealing important aspects of the biology of hosts in structuring the diversity and abundance of these host-associated bacterial communities including the role of host phylogeny and shared evolutionary history.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12862-017-0945-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus