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Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens.

Background: Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with >50 sows and >200 weaners were selected. AMs prescribed for weaners was measured in animal daily doses (ADD) and divided according to three indication groups (gastro-intestinal, respiratory indication or total use). The analysis was based on three multivariable linear regression models of the herd-level ADD for each indication group. The eight vaccination combinations (2x2x2) were included as one explanatory variable, and herd size, measured as the number of weaner pen places was included in the models as a potential confounder.

Results: Out of the 1513 herds in the study, 1415 had AMs prescribed for gastro-intestinal disorders, and 836 for respiratory disorders. PCV2 vaccines were purchased in 880 herds, MYC vaccines in 787 and LAW vaccines in 115 herds. Herds purchasing PCV2 and MYC vaccines had significantly more AMs prescribed than herds not purchasing vaccines or only purchasing LAW vaccines.

Conclusion: In the present study, using register data covering 1 year, we found an association between use of vaccination and increased amount of AMs prescribed for weaners. This does not exclude that the vaccines work, just that we were unable to detect this. The findings might be explained by some herds experiencing clinical problems associated with MYC or PCV2 despite use of vaccination. In other herds, it might reflect that vaccines applied to weaners are used for disease prevention in finishers rather than in the weaners. Information about vaccination protocols and herd health status was not available at the time of the study. Hence, further studies are required to investigate causality of the associations between use of AMs, vaccination practices and other confounding on-farm factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Total use of antimicrobials – measured as Animal Daily Doses (ADD) per 100 weaners per day – in 1513 Danish sow herds, divided according to the combined use of vaccination against PCV2, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC), and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW), 2013
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Fig1: Total use of antimicrobials – measured as Animal Daily Doses (ADD) per 100 weaners per day – in 1513 Danish sow herds, divided according to the combined use of vaccination against PCV2, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC), and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW), 2013

Mentions: All data analyses were carried out in R (version 3.1.2 of 2014 – The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Univariable analyses were performed for the total AM consumption (AC-TOTAL), AM consumption with gastrointestinal indication (AC-GI) and AM consumption with respiratory indication (AC-RESP) Figs. 1, 2 and 3). Herd size – measured as number of weaner pen places – was divided into three classes: small (<7500), medium (7500–14,999), and large (≥15,000). AC-TOTAL and AC-GI were square root transformed whereas AC-RESP was log-transformed to normalize the distributions. Regarding vaccination: First we went through a pre-analysis step involving the creation of a vaccination coverage index based on the prescriptions of vaccines in 2013. However, it turned out not very useful, so we decided to assign herds as vaccinated if the respective type(s) of vaccine(s) had been prescribed during 2013 irrespective of the number of doses prescribed.Fig. 1


Comparison of the antimicrobial consumption in weaning pigs in Danish sow herds with different vaccine purchase patterns during 2013
Total use of antimicrobials – measured as Animal Daily Doses (ADD) per 100 weaners per day – in 1513 Danish sow herds, divided according to the combined use of vaccination against PCV2, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC), and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW), 2013
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382450&req=5

Fig1: Total use of antimicrobials – measured as Animal Daily Doses (ADD) per 100 weaners per day – in 1513 Danish sow herds, divided according to the combined use of vaccination against PCV2, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC), and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW), 2013
Mentions: All data analyses were carried out in R (version 3.1.2 of 2014 – The R Foundation for Statistical Computing). Univariable analyses were performed for the total AM consumption (AC-TOTAL), AM consumption with gastrointestinal indication (AC-GI) and AM consumption with respiratory indication (AC-RESP) Figs. 1, 2 and 3). Herd size – measured as number of weaner pen places – was divided into three classes: small (<7500), medium (7500–14,999), and large (≥15,000). AC-TOTAL and AC-GI were square root transformed whereas AC-RESP was log-transformed to normalize the distributions. Regarding vaccination: First we went through a pre-analysis step involving the creation of a vaccination coverage index based on the prescriptions of vaccines in 2013. However, it turned out not very useful, so we decided to assign herds as vaccinated if the respective type(s) of vaccine(s) had been prescribed during 2013 irrespective of the number of doses prescribed.Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: There is growing concern about development of antimicrobial resistance due to use of antimicrobials (AMs) in livestock production. Identifying efficient alternatives, including vaccination, is a priority. The objective of this study was to compare the herd-level amount of AMs prescribed for weaner pigs, between Danish sow herds using varying combinations of vaccines against Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2), Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (MYC) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LAW). It was hypothesised that herds purchasing vaccines, use these to prevent disease, and hence reduce their AM consumption, compared to herds purchasing fewer or no vaccines against these pathogens.

Background: Data summarised over year 2013 were obtained from the Danish Central Husbandry Register and the Danish VetStat database, in which prescriptions of medication are recorded. All one-site indoor pig herds with &gt;50 sows and &gt;200 weaners were selected. AMs prescribed for weaners was measured in animal daily doses (ADD) and divided according to three indication groups (gastro-intestinal, respiratory indication or total use). The analysis was based on three multivariable linear regression models of the herd-level ADD for each indication group. The eight vaccination combinations (2x2x2) were included as one explanatory variable, and herd size, measured as the number of weaner pen places was included in the models as a potential confounder.

Results: Out of the 1513 herds in the study, 1415 had AMs prescribed for gastro-intestinal disorders, and 836 for respiratory disorders. PCV2 vaccines were purchased in 880 herds, MYC vaccines in 787 and LAW vaccines in 115 herds. Herds purchasing PCV2 and MYC vaccines had significantly more AMs prescribed than herds not purchasing vaccines or only purchasing LAW vaccines.

Conclusion: In the present study, using register data covering 1&nbsp;year, we found an association between use of vaccination and increased amount of AMs prescribed for weaners. This does not exclude that the vaccines work, just that we were unable to detect this. The findings might be explained by some herds experiencing clinical problems associated with MYC or PCV2 despite use of vaccination. In other herds, it might reflect that vaccines applied to weaners are used for disease prevention in finishers rather than in the weaners. Information about vaccination protocols and herd health status was not available at the time of the study. Hence, further studies are required to investigate causality of the associations between use of AMs, vaccination practices and other confounding on-farm factors.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus