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Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. Here we review the recent evidence of the role of normal gastrointestinal and respiratory microbiome in health and how dysbiosis affects chronic pulmonary diseases. The potential implications of host and environmental factors such as age, gender, diet and use of antibiotics on the composition and overall functionality of microbiome are also discussed. We summarise how microbiota may mediate the dynamic process of immune development and/or regulation focusing on recent data from both clinical human studies and translational animal studies. This furthers the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases and may yield novel avenues for the utilisation of microbiota as potential therapeutic interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Interaction matrix: risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases and associated pathology with microbiome. Major risk factors could lead to immune dysregulation, characteristic pathology and ‘dysbiosis'. Altered microbiome could then aggravate the host immunity and disease pathology. Notably, aberrant immune response could further skew the microbiome favoring specific pathogens typically reported in respiratory diseases, such as COPD and CF. LF, lung function.
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fig3: Interaction matrix: risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases and associated pathology with microbiome. Major risk factors could lead to immune dysregulation, characteristic pathology and ‘dysbiosis'. Altered microbiome could then aggravate the host immunity and disease pathology. Notably, aberrant immune response could further skew the microbiome favoring specific pathogens typically reported in respiratory diseases, such as COPD and CF. LF, lung function.

Mentions: Evidence suggests that certain microbes have pivotal roles in the development of healthy immune responses, and microbial dysbiosis can contribute to chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and CF. The cross-talk between mucosal barriers, such as occurs in gut–lung cross-talk, is considered to be mediated by both resident microbes and patrolling immune cells, but this remains to be fully elucidated. Currently, available treatments for major non-communicable lung diseases only focus on alleviating symptoms with poor applicability to completely prevent and/or treat the diseases. A better understanding of microbiome-driven pathophysiology and inflammation, in conjunction with the interaction of major risk factors for chronic lung disease such as host genetics and cigarette smoking, would aid in optimising current treatments and in managing these chronic lung conditions (Figure 3). Furthermore, by improving our understanding of the role of microbiomes in these diseases, novel therapeutic strategies may be developed. The effects of current therapeutics on overall microbiome, and consequently on the disease severity/progression, remains largely unknown and needs to be properly understood to realise the full impact of these treatments. Modification of the microbiome through diet, probiotics, faecal or selected bacterial transfers may supplement currently available treatments or be effective treatments in their own right, but further research into such alternatives is required.


Microbiome effects on immunity, health and disease in the lung
Interaction matrix: risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases and associated pathology with microbiome. Major risk factors could lead to immune dysregulation, characteristic pathology and ‘dysbiosis'. Altered microbiome could then aggravate the host immunity and disease pathology. Notably, aberrant immune response could further skew the microbiome favoring specific pathogens typically reported in respiratory diseases, such as COPD and CF. LF, lung function.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382435&req=5

fig3: Interaction matrix: risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases and associated pathology with microbiome. Major risk factors could lead to immune dysregulation, characteristic pathology and ‘dysbiosis'. Altered microbiome could then aggravate the host immunity and disease pathology. Notably, aberrant immune response could further skew the microbiome favoring specific pathogens typically reported in respiratory diseases, such as COPD and CF. LF, lung function.
Mentions: Evidence suggests that certain microbes have pivotal roles in the development of healthy immune responses, and microbial dysbiosis can contribute to chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as asthma, COPD and CF. The cross-talk between mucosal barriers, such as occurs in gut–lung cross-talk, is considered to be mediated by both resident microbes and patrolling immune cells, but this remains to be fully elucidated. Currently, available treatments for major non-communicable lung diseases only focus on alleviating symptoms with poor applicability to completely prevent and/or treat the diseases. A better understanding of microbiome-driven pathophysiology and inflammation, in conjunction with the interaction of major risk factors for chronic lung disease such as host genetics and cigarette smoking, would aid in optimising current treatments and in managing these chronic lung conditions (Figure 3). Furthermore, by improving our understanding of the role of microbiomes in these diseases, novel therapeutic strategies may be developed. The effects of current therapeutics on overall microbiome, and consequently on the disease severity/progression, remains largely unknown and needs to be properly understood to realise the full impact of these treatments. Modification of the microbiome through diet, probiotics, faecal or selected bacterial transfers may supplement currently available treatments or be effective treatments in their own right, but further research into such alternatives is required.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Chronic respiratory diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis (CF), are among the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In the past decade, the interest in the role of microbiome in maintaining lung health and in respiratory diseases has grown exponentially. The advent of sophisticated multiomics techniques has enabled the identification and characterisation of microbiota and their roles in respiratory health and disease. Furthermore, associations between the microbiome of the lung and gut, as well as the immune cells and mediators that may link these two mucosal sites, appear to be important in the pathogenesis of lung conditions. Here we review the recent evidence of the role of normal gastrointestinal and respiratory microbiome in health and how dysbiosis affects chronic pulmonary diseases. The potential implications of host and environmental factors such as age, gender, diet and use of antibiotics on the composition and overall functionality of microbiome are also discussed. We summarise how microbiota may mediate the dynamic process of immune development and/or regulation focusing on recent data from both clinical human studies and translational animal studies. This furthers the understanding of the pathogenesis of chronic pulmonary diseases and may yield novel avenues for the utilisation of microbiota as potential therapeutic interventions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus