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Provision of straw by a foraging tower – effect on tail biting in weaners and fattening pigs

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Straw is one of the most effective rooting materials to reduce tail biting in pigs. A so-called foraging-tower (FT) provides only small quantities of straw compatible with liquid manure systems. The focus of the present study was on the effect of providing straw by FT in order to prevent tail biting in tail docked pigs. Four consecutive batches of 160 pigs, randomly divided into a straw (SG) and a control group (CG) were followed up from weaning to slaughter.

Results: Tail wounds (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 out of 12,032 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32) mainly focused on the fattening period of batch 2 due to a failure in the ventilation system. No significant differences concerning the distribution of Score ≥ 2 in pens of the SG and CG could be identified. Bite marks (Score 1) were documented in 395 observations at animal level (SG n = 197, CG n = 198) in all batches. In the nursery period, the air velocity significantly increased the chance that at least one pig per pen and week showed a tail lesion score ≥1 (p = 0.024). In the fattening period ammonia concentration was positively associated with tail lesions (p = 0.007).

Results: The investigation of blood samples revealed infections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in all batches and a circulation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (NA-vaccine strain) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in two batches each. The average daily straw consumption was 3.5 g/pig (standard deviation (SD) = 1.1) during the rearing period and 31.9 g/pig (SD = 7.7) during the fattening period.

Conclusion: Due to the low prevalence of tail biting in all batches the effect of the FT tower could not be evaluated conclusively. The operation of the FT with an average daily straw consumption of 3.5 g/pig (SD = 1.1) during the rearing period and 31.9 g/pig (SD = 7.7) during the fattening period did not affect the weight gain. Exploratory behaviour seems to cause bite marks (score 1), which do not necessarily result in tail biting. The main outbreak of tail biting was probably triggered by a failure of the ventilation system, which resulted in a number of climatic and air quality changes including higher ammonia concentrations and sudden temperature changes.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40813-017-0052-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the ammonia content (NH3) in the units of batch 2 (w = week). b: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the average temperature and the highest day/night temperature range per week in the unit of batch 2 (w = week)
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Fig3: a: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the ammonia content (NH3) in the units of batch 2 (w = week). b: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the average temperature and the highest day/night temperature range per week in the unit of batch 2 (w = week)

Mentions: In total, the occurrence of tail lesions was analyzed in 12,032 single observations at animal level (SG n = 6016, CG n = 6016) and 976 (SG n = 488, CG n = 488) observations at pen-week level. Tail wounds (score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in different 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32). The number of affected pigs per pen and the duration of tail biting are shown in Table 3. The duration was calculated as the number of consecutive weeks in which at least one pig per pen with a fresh bleeding tail wound was present. The occurrence of tail biting was mainly focused on four pens with 15 affected pigs in batch 2 and one pen during the rearing period of batch 4. Bite marks (score 1) were documented in 395 observations at animal level (SG n = 197, CG n = 198). The proportions of pigs with tail wounds (score ≥ 2) and bite marks (score 1) in all pens per week in the SG and CG are shown in Fig. 3 a and b for batch 2 and in the Additional files 1 a, b, 2 and 3 a, b for batch 1, 3 and 4.Table 3


Provision of straw by a foraging tower – effect on tail biting in weaners and fattening pigs
a: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the ammonia content (NH3) in the units of batch 2 (w = week). b: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the average temperature and the highest day/night temperature range per week in the unit of batch 2 (w = week)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
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Fig3: a: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the ammonia content (NH3) in the units of batch 2 (w = week). b: Bite marks (score 1) and tail wounds (score ≥ 2) related to the average temperature and the highest day/night temperature range per week in the unit of batch 2 (w = week)
Mentions: In total, the occurrence of tail lesions was analyzed in 12,032 single observations at animal level (SG n = 6016, CG n = 6016) and 976 (SG n = 488, CG n = 488) observations at pen-week level. Tail wounds (score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in different 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32). The number of affected pigs per pen and the duration of tail biting are shown in Table 3. The duration was calculated as the number of consecutive weeks in which at least one pig per pen with a fresh bleeding tail wound was present. The occurrence of tail biting was mainly focused on four pens with 15 affected pigs in batch 2 and one pen during the rearing period of batch 4. Bite marks (score 1) were documented in 395 observations at animal level (SG n = 197, CG n = 198). The proportions of pigs with tail wounds (score ≥ 2) and bite marks (score 1) in all pens per week in the SG and CG are shown in Fig. 3 a and b for batch 2 and in the Additional files 1 a, b, 2 and 3 a, b for batch 1, 3 and 4.Table 3

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background: Straw is one of the most effective rooting materials to reduce tail biting in pigs. A so-called foraging-tower (FT) provides only small quantities of straw compatible with liquid manure systems. The focus of the present study was on the effect of providing straw by FT in order to prevent tail biting in tail docked pigs. Four consecutive batches of 160 pigs, randomly divided into a straw (SG) and a control group (CG) were followed up from weaning to slaughter.

Results: Tail wounds (Score ≥ 2) were detected in 104 out of 12,032 single observations (SG n = 48; CG n = 56) in 9 pens (SG n = 4/32; CG n = 5/32) mainly focused on the fattening period of batch 2 due to a failure in the ventilation system. No significant differences concerning the distribution of Score ≥ 2 in pens of the SG and CG could be identified. Bite marks (Score 1) were documented in 395 observations at animal level (SG n = 197, CG n = 198) in all batches. In the nursery period, the air velocity significantly increased the chance that at least one pig per pen and week showed a tail lesion score ≥1 (p = 0.024). In the fattening period ammonia concentration was positively associated with tail lesions (p = 0.007).

Results: The investigation of blood samples revealed infections with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in all batches and a circulation of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (NA-vaccine strain) and Porcine Circovirus Type 2 in two batches each. The average daily straw consumption was 3.5 g/pig (standard deviation (SD) = 1.1) during the rearing period and 31.9 g/pig (SD = 7.7) during the fattening period.

Conclusion: Due to the low prevalence of tail biting in all batches the effect of the FT tower could not be evaluated conclusively. The operation of the FT with an average daily straw consumption of 3.5 g/pig (SD = 1.1) during the rearing period and 31.9 g/pig (SD = 7.7) during the fattening period did not affect the weight gain. Exploratory behaviour seems to cause bite marks (score 1), which do not necessarily result in tail biting. The main outbreak of tail biting was probably triggered by a failure of the ventilation system, which resulted in a number of climatic and air quality changes including higher ammonia concentrations and sudden temperature changes.

Electronic supplementary material: The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s40813-017-0052-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus