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Novel analytic tools for the study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in endemic settings: lessons learned in the U.S.

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ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in the late 1980’s, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) has posed a significant challenge to the pig industry worldwide. Since then, a number of epidemiological tools have been created to support control and eventual elimination of the disease at the farm and regional levels. Still, many aspects of the disease dynamics are yet-to-be elucidated, such as what are the economically optimal control strategies at the farm and regional level, what is the role that the voluntary regional control programs may play, how to optimize the use of molecular tools for surveillance and monitoring in infected settings, what is the full impact of the disease in a farm, or what is the relative contribution of alternative transmission routes on the occurrence of PRRSv outbreaks. Here, we summarize a number of projects demonstrating the use of novel analytical tools in the assessment of PRRSv epidemiology in the United States. Results presented demonstrate how quantitative analysis of routinely collected data may help in understanding regional epidemiology of PRRSv and to quantify its full impact, and how the integration of phylodynamic methods as a standard tool for molecular surveillance of PRRSv might help to inform control and prevention strategies in high-risk epidemiological situations. Ultimately, these tools will help to support PRRSv control at farm and regional levels in endemically infected settings.

No MeSH data available.


Plot of geographical density of swine farms currently enrolled in the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) in the United States
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Fig1: Plot of geographical density of swine farms currently enrolled in the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) in the United States

Mentions: Analysis of data collected as part of the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP), a voluntary project monitoring the incidence of PRRS in a cohort of sow farms (still ongoing and currently including 742 farms with approximately 2 million sows, i.e., approximately one third of the U.S. sow population) (Fig. 1) that began in 2011, has demonstrated that the incidence of PRRS has shown a repeatable pattern between 2009 and 2013 [25]. During this period, PRRS annual incidence consistently increased during the months of September through November and decreased during the months of February through April, with epidemic levels of disease [established using an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart method] being reached in the middle of October [25]. Among the 371 sow herds in the database at that time, it was shown that 29 – 38 % of the herds reported a new PRRS infection each year [25]. Additionally, this study identified significant spatial clustering in swine dense regions of Minnesota and Iowa, further reinforcing the need for a comprehensive approach to make an impact in the disease at the regional level [25]. Analysis of the same cohort of sow farms revealed a significant decrease in PRRS incidence In 2013-2014, when the PED epidemic spread within the U.S. swine population, in comparison with previous years [26]. It was suggested that improved biosecurity measures aimed at preventing PED transmission may have also reduced PRRS incidence, in addition to increased PRRS vaccine use and awareness of the annual epidemics [26]. That study also showed the extent of the spatial clustering of disease was similar to the previous years, suggesting certain factors within those regions may be contributing to these observations [26].Fig. 1


Novel analytic tools for the study of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in endemic settings: lessons learned in the U.S.
Plot of geographical density of swine farms currently enrolled in the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) in the United States
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5382381&req=5

Fig1: Plot of geographical density of swine farms currently enrolled in the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP) in the United States
Mentions: Analysis of data collected as part of the Swine Health Monitoring Project (SHMP), a voluntary project monitoring the incidence of PRRS in a cohort of sow farms (still ongoing and currently including 742 farms with approximately 2 million sows, i.e., approximately one third of the U.S. sow population) (Fig. 1) that began in 2011, has demonstrated that the incidence of PRRS has shown a repeatable pattern between 2009 and 2013 [25]. During this period, PRRS annual incidence consistently increased during the months of September through November and decreased during the months of February through April, with epidemic levels of disease [established using an Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart method] being reached in the middle of October [25]. Among the 371 sow herds in the database at that time, it was shown that 29 – 38 % of the herds reported a new PRRS infection each year [25]. Additionally, this study identified significant spatial clustering in swine dense regions of Minnesota and Iowa, further reinforcing the need for a comprehensive approach to make an impact in the disease at the regional level [25]. Analysis of the same cohort of sow farms revealed a significant decrease in PRRS incidence In 2013-2014, when the PED epidemic spread within the U.S. swine population, in comparison with previous years [26]. It was suggested that improved biosecurity measures aimed at preventing PED transmission may have also reduced PRRS incidence, in addition to increased PRRS vaccine use and awareness of the annual epidemics [26]. That study also showed the extent of the spatial clustering of disease was similar to the previous years, suggesting certain factors within those regions may be contributing to these observations [26].Fig. 1

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in the late 1980’s, the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) has posed a significant challenge to the pig industry worldwide. Since then, a number of epidemiological tools have been created to support control and eventual elimination of the disease at the farm and regional levels. Still, many aspects of the disease dynamics are yet-to-be elucidated, such as what are the economically optimal control strategies at the farm and regional level, what is the role that the voluntary regional control programs may play, how to optimize the use of molecular tools for surveillance and monitoring in infected settings, what is the full impact of the disease in a farm, or what is the relative contribution of alternative transmission routes on the occurrence of PRRSv outbreaks. Here, we summarize a number of projects demonstrating the use of novel analytical tools in the assessment of PRRSv epidemiology in the United States. Results presented demonstrate how quantitative analysis of routinely collected data may help in understanding regional epidemiology of PRRSv and to quantify its full impact, and how the integration of phylodynamic methods as a standard tool for molecular surveillance of PRRSv might help to inform control and prevention strategies in high-risk epidemiological situations. Ultimately, these tools will help to support PRRSv control at farm and regional levels in endemically infected settings.

No MeSH data available.