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An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron – Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) fabricated in hydrogen (H2)-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge) co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Strain sensitivity of the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber obtained from mechanical load-cycling tests as a function of temperature.
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sensors-17-00431-f011: Strain sensitivity of the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber obtained from mechanical load-cycling tests as a function of temperature.

Mentions: For sensor applications, the Bragg wavelength of a RFBG-based strain sensor must be stable and repeatable when subjected to loading at high temperatures. Accordingly, the tensile tests were conducted at the same test temperatures for three times to determine its stability and repeatability. Figure 10a–g shows the temporal evolution of the shift in Bragg wavelength during the mechanical-loading cycles for the sensor prototype at constant temperatures of 26.5 °C, 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 540 °C, with the same scale in both the wavelength shift and time. It is observed that the sensor prototype presents no obvious drift in its Bragg wavelength. Each shift in Bragg wavelength of the sensor prototype is calculated by averaging the shifts measured as the load is held constant within 2 min to determine its strain sensitivity. These values obtained from the mechanical loading-cycling tests agree well with one another, as shown in Figure 11. Slight fluctuations in the wavelength shift of the sensor prototype are related to temperature disturbance at temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C. These results thus highlight the importance to compensate the temperature effect to enhance the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG fabricated in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber has good stability and repeatability. It has also been proven that the interfacial bonding between the optical fiber and the titanium layer is strong, as well as the nickel layer and the P91 steel substrate.


An Improved Metal-Packaged Strain Sensor Based on A Regenerated Fiber Bragg Grating in Hydrogen-Loaded Boron – Germanium Co-Doped Photosensitive Fiber for High-Temperature Applications
Strain sensitivity of the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber obtained from mechanical load-cycling tests as a function of temperature.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375717&req=5

sensors-17-00431-f011: Strain sensitivity of the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber obtained from mechanical load-cycling tests as a function of temperature.
Mentions: For sensor applications, the Bragg wavelength of a RFBG-based strain sensor must be stable and repeatable when subjected to loading at high temperatures. Accordingly, the tensile tests were conducted at the same test temperatures for three times to determine its stability and repeatability. Figure 10a–g shows the temporal evolution of the shift in Bragg wavelength during the mechanical-loading cycles for the sensor prototype at constant temperatures of 26.5 °C, 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C, 500 °C and 540 °C, with the same scale in both the wavelength shift and time. It is observed that the sensor prototype presents no obvious drift in its Bragg wavelength. Each shift in Bragg wavelength of the sensor prototype is calculated by averaging the shifts measured as the load is held constant within 2 min to determine its strain sensitivity. These values obtained from the mechanical loading-cycling tests agree well with one another, as shown in Figure 11. Slight fluctuations in the wavelength shift of the sensor prototype are related to temperature disturbance at temperatures of 300 °C and 400 °C. These results thus highlight the importance to compensate the temperature effect to enhance the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the metal-packaged strain sensor based on the RFBG fabricated in H2-loaded PS1250/1500 fiber has good stability and repeatability. It has also been proven that the interfacial bonding between the optical fiber and the titanium layer is strong, as well as the nickel layer and the P91 steel substrate.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Local strain measurements are considered as an effective method for structural health monitoring of high-temperature components, which require accurate, reliable and durable sensors. To develop strain sensors that can be used in higher temperature environments, an improved metal-packaged strain sensor based on a regenerated fiber Bragg grating (RFBG) fabricated in hydrogen (H2)-loaded boron–germanium (B–Ge) co-doped photosensitive fiber is developed using the process of combining magnetron sputtering and electroplating, addressing the limitation of mechanical strength degradation of silica optical fibers after annealing at a high temperature for regeneration. The regeneration characteristics of the RFBGs and the strain characteristics of the sensor are evaluated. Numerical simulation of the sensor is conducted using a three-dimensional finite element model. Anomalous decay behavior of two regeneration regimes is observed for the FBGs written in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber. The strain sensor exhibits good linearity, stability and repeatability when exposed to constant high temperatures of up to 540 °C. A satisfactory agreement is obtained between the experimental and numerical results in strain sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the improved metal-packaged strain sensors based on RFBGs in H2-loaded B–Ge co-doped fiber provide great potential for high-temperature applications by addressing the issues of mechanical integrity and packaging.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus