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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic diagram of the downhole testing.
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sensors-17-00429-f021: Schematic diagram of the downhole testing.

Mentions: In September 2010, our team of 16 members went to Liaohe Oilfield of Qi-40-Guan-23 well for the downhole testing, which aimed to measure the performance of downwell optical cable, fiber grating sensors, and connectors under downhole harsh environment, such as high temperature, high pressure, and strong corrosion (As shown in Figure 21). A series of high-temperature and high-pressure fiber grating sensors based on the high-pressure FBG sensor in Figure 10 of Section 2.3 were fabricated, which possessed obvious advantages, such as compact size, low cost, wide detection range, high sensitivity (temperature: 0.1 °C, pressure: 0.05 MPa), corrosion resistance, high security. These sensors can detect the temperature (measurement range: 0~350 °C) and pressure (measurement range: 0~100 MPa), simultaneously. These home-made fiber grating sensors were also employed to detect the varying ranges of downwell temperature and pressure.


Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry
Schematic diagram of the downhole testing.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375715&req=5

sensors-17-00429-f021: Schematic diagram of the downhole testing.
Mentions: In September 2010, our team of 16 members went to Liaohe Oilfield of Qi-40-Guan-23 well for the downhole testing, which aimed to measure the performance of downwell optical cable, fiber grating sensors, and connectors under downhole harsh environment, such as high temperature, high pressure, and strong corrosion (As shown in Figure 21). A series of high-temperature and high-pressure fiber grating sensors based on the high-pressure FBG sensor in Figure 10 of Section 2.3 were fabricated, which possessed obvious advantages, such as compact size, low cost, wide detection range, high sensitivity (temperature: 0.1 °C, pressure: 0.05 MPa), corrosion resistance, high security. These sensors can detect the temperature (measurement range: 0~350 °C) and pressure (measurement range: 0~100 MPa), simultaneously. These home-made fiber grating sensors were also employed to detect the varying ranges of downwell temperature and pressure.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.