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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Cross-section structure of downhole cable; (b) Photo of the 10 km-long downhole cable.
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sensors-17-00429-f020: (a) Cross-section structure of downhole cable; (b) Photo of the 10 km-long downhole cable.

Mentions: For sensing and logging vibration, temperature, pressure and acoustic waves down deep wells, it is necessary to use sturdy fiber cables that can also withstand the high temperatures and pressures and support their own weight. Our group has made a strong downhole cable using the special design and materials. The fiber in the cable is coated with metal and polyimide that can withstand the high temperature. The cross-sectional structure of the cable is shown in Figure 20a. Now we are collaborating with a commercial cable manufacturer to produce 10 km-long cables, as shown in the photo in Figure 20b.


Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry
(a) Cross-section structure of downhole cable; (b) Photo of the 10 km-long downhole cable.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375715&req=5

sensors-17-00429-f020: (a) Cross-section structure of downhole cable; (b) Photo of the 10 km-long downhole cable.
Mentions: For sensing and logging vibration, temperature, pressure and acoustic waves down deep wells, it is necessary to use sturdy fiber cables that can also withstand the high temperatures and pressures and support their own weight. Our group has made a strong downhole cable using the special design and materials. The fiber in the cable is coated with metal and polyimide that can withstand the high temperature. The cross-sectional structure of the cable is shown in Figure 20a. Now we are collaborating with a commercial cable manufacturer to produce 10 km-long cables, as shown in the photo in Figure 20b.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.