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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Photograph of the step-type Plexiglas model; (b) UW image of the physical model; (c) Photograph of the sunken plexiglas model; (d) UW image of the physical model.
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sensors-17-00429-f017: (a) Photograph of the step-type Plexiglas model; (b) UW image of the physical model; (c) Photograph of the sunken plexiglas model; (d) UW image of the physical model.

Mentions: Figure 17a shows a step-type Plexiglas block that includes three interfaces. The thickness of the upper model is approximately 2 cm. Figure 17b demonstrates the UW imaging of the model, as expected, which clearly presents the surfaces of the model. The result is also in agreement with the shape and structure of the actual model. It is noted that the image of the upper model is longer than that of the actual one. This fake extension mainly contributes to the UW diffraction of the interface and the highly spatial resolution of the FBG-FP probe.


Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry
(a) Photograph of the step-type Plexiglas model; (b) UW image of the physical model; (c) Photograph of the sunken plexiglas model; (d) UW image of the physical model.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375715&req=5

sensors-17-00429-f017: (a) Photograph of the step-type Plexiglas model; (b) UW image of the physical model; (c) Photograph of the sunken plexiglas model; (d) UW image of the physical model.
Mentions: Figure 17a shows a step-type Plexiglas block that includes three interfaces. The thickness of the upper model is approximately 2 cm. Figure 17b demonstrates the UW imaging of the model, as expected, which clearly presents the surfaces of the model. The result is also in agreement with the shape and structure of the actual model. It is noted that the image of the upper model is longer than that of the actual one. This fake extension mainly contributes to the UW diffraction of the interface and the highly spatial resolution of the FBG-FP probe.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.