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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Spectral side-band filtering mechanism; (b) FBG spectral response to ultrasonic; sensor’s responses to the pulse ultrasonic under the different distances and with different frequencies: (c) 300 kHz and (d) 1 MHz.
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sensors-17-00429-f016: (a) Spectral side-band filtering mechanism; (b) FBG spectral response to ultrasonic; sensor’s responses to the pulse ultrasonic under the different distances and with different frequencies: (c) 300 kHz and (d) 1 MHz.

Mentions: In the experiment, the models detected are placed in water to better index match the UW to the sensor. Since the seismic model is a reduced size of geology structure in equal proportion, the UW with frequency from 100 kHz to 10 MHz is usually employed to the imaging of the models. Here, we choose the sources providing 300 kHz and 1 MHz pulse UWs. In the experiment, the ultrasonic is partially reflected by the interface between air and physical models, e.g., the upper surfaces of models. Meanwhile, the models of Plexiglass materials allow the partials of ultrasonic passing over, and then being reflected by the defects in models, especially by the bottom surface. According to the information of the ultrasonic transmission velocity in water (1500 m/s) and models (2700 m/s), and the time flight in detection result, the thickness and defect positions can be determined. As the UW is applied to the FBG, the resonance spectrum shifts as shown in Figure 16b. The spectral side band technique transforms wavelength information into intensity information that is easier to measure and record. Figure 16c,d demonstrate the time domain spectra changes with the increasing distances at the fixed ultrasonic frequencies of 300 kHz and 1 MHz. The sensor is highly sensitive to the ultrasonic waves at the two frequencies. This result confirms the wide-frequency-band ultrasonic detection capability. With the increasing propagation distances, the detection voltage signal significantly decreases owing to the large loss of the ultrasonic energy in water.


Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry
(a) Spectral side-band filtering mechanism; (b) FBG spectral response to ultrasonic; sensor’s responses to the pulse ultrasonic under the different distances and with different frequencies: (c) 300 kHz and (d) 1 MHz.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375715&req=5

sensors-17-00429-f016: (a) Spectral side-band filtering mechanism; (b) FBG spectral response to ultrasonic; sensor’s responses to the pulse ultrasonic under the different distances and with different frequencies: (c) 300 kHz and (d) 1 MHz.
Mentions: In the experiment, the models detected are placed in water to better index match the UW to the sensor. Since the seismic model is a reduced size of geology structure in equal proportion, the UW with frequency from 100 kHz to 10 MHz is usually employed to the imaging of the models. Here, we choose the sources providing 300 kHz and 1 MHz pulse UWs. In the experiment, the ultrasonic is partially reflected by the interface between air and physical models, e.g., the upper surfaces of models. Meanwhile, the models of Plexiglass materials allow the partials of ultrasonic passing over, and then being reflected by the defects in models, especially by the bottom surface. According to the information of the ultrasonic transmission velocity in water (1500 m/s) and models (2700 m/s), and the time flight in detection result, the thickness and defect positions can be determined. As the UW is applied to the FBG, the resonance spectrum shifts as shown in Figure 16b. The spectral side band technique transforms wavelength information into intensity information that is easier to measure and record. Figure 16c,d demonstrate the time domain spectra changes with the increasing distances at the fixed ultrasonic frequencies of 300 kHz and 1 MHz. The sensor is highly sensitive to the ultrasonic waves at the two frequencies. This result confirms the wide-frequency-band ultrasonic detection capability. With the increasing propagation distances, the detection voltage signal significantly decreases owing to the large loss of the ultrasonic energy in water.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.