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Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.


(a) Experimental setup for vector pressure measurement; (b) Reflection spectrum of PM-FBG with two polarized mode resonances; (c) Orthogonal responses of two polarized mode versus transverse stress.
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sensors-17-00429-f012: (a) Experimental setup for vector pressure measurement; (b) Reflection spectrum of PM-FBG with two polarized mode resonances; (c) Orthogonal responses of two polarized mode versus transverse stress.

Mentions: The FBG sensors present the excellent potential for pressure measurement but are not sensitive to the application direction of pressure. Here, we discuss a 2D pressure sensor. The sensing device comprises a section of polarization-maintaining fiber containing a FBG. Two resonances corresponding to two orthogonal modes are reflected by the FBG along the fast- and slow-axes of PM fiber, as shown in Figure 12b. The pressure testing is operated by applying the transverse strain on the FBG. A 25 mm-long uncoated PM fiber located about 10 mm away from a FBG is placed between two glass plates, and another supporting PM fiber is mounted parallel to sensing PM fiber at a distance of 15 mm, as shown in Figure 12a. Local pressure is exerted on the upper glass plate, which is calibrated by a commercial piezometer. The initial E-field intensities of LP01(x) and LP01(y) modes are equal when the LP light is launched into the PM fiber at 45° with respect to one birefringence axis of the PM fiber by regulating the polarization controller. When the transverse strains from 0 N/mm to 1 N/mm are applied on sensing PM fiber, an obvious E-field intensity conversion of LP01(x)-to-LP01(y) mode occurs in the reflection spectrum.


Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for the Oil Industry
(a) Experimental setup for vector pressure measurement; (b) Reflection spectrum of PM-FBG with two polarized mode resonances; (c) Orthogonal responses of two polarized mode versus transverse stress.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5375715&req=5

sensors-17-00429-f012: (a) Experimental setup for vector pressure measurement; (b) Reflection spectrum of PM-FBG with two polarized mode resonances; (c) Orthogonal responses of two polarized mode versus transverse stress.
Mentions: The FBG sensors present the excellent potential for pressure measurement but are not sensitive to the application direction of pressure. Here, we discuss a 2D pressure sensor. The sensing device comprises a section of polarization-maintaining fiber containing a FBG. Two resonances corresponding to two orthogonal modes are reflected by the FBG along the fast- and slow-axes of PM fiber, as shown in Figure 12b. The pressure testing is operated by applying the transverse strain on the FBG. A 25 mm-long uncoated PM fiber located about 10 mm away from a FBG is placed between two glass plates, and another supporting PM fiber is mounted parallel to sensing PM fiber at a distance of 15 mm, as shown in Figure 12a. Local pressure is exerted on the upper glass plate, which is calibrated by a commercial piezometer. The initial E-field intensities of LP01(x) and LP01(y) modes are equal when the LP light is launched into the PM fiber at 45° with respect to one birefringence axis of the PM fiber by regulating the polarization controller. When the transverse strains from 0 N/mm to 1 N/mm are applied on sensing PM fiber, an obvious E-field intensity conversion of LP01(x)-to-LP01(y) mode occurs in the reflection spectrum.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

With the oil and gas industry growing rapidly, increasing the yield and profit require advances in technology for cost-effective production in key areas of reservoir exploration and in oil-well production-management. In this paper we review our group’s research into fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) and their applications in the oil industry, especially in the well-logging field. FBG sensors used for seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry need to be capable of measuring multiple physical parameters such as temperature, pressure, and acoustic waves in a hostile environment. This application requires that the FBG sensors display high sensitivity over the broad vibration frequency range of 5 Hz to 2.5 kHz, which contains the important geological information. We report the incorporation of mechanical transducers in the FBG sensors to enable enhance the sensors’ amplitude and frequency response. Whenever the FBG sensors are working within a well, they must withstand high temperatures and high pressures, up to 175 °C and 40 Mpa or more. We use femtosecond laser side-illumination to ensure that the FBGs themselves have the high temperature resistance up to 1100 °C. Using FBG sensors combined with suitable metal transducers, we have experimentally realized high- temperature and pressure measurements up to 400 °C and 100 Mpa. We introduce a novel technology of ultrasonic imaging of seismic physical models using FBG sensors, which is superior to conventional seismic exploration methods. Compared with piezoelectric transducers, FBG ultrasonic sensors demonstrate superior sensitivity, more compact structure, improved spatial resolution, high stability and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI). In the last section, we present a case study of a well-logging field to demonstrate the utility of FBG sensors in the oil and gas industry.

No MeSH data available.