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Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: Previous reports have revealed that several cytokines (including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factors-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-1) can enhance the rate of bone formation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in orthopaedics or periodontology. This study aimed to determine the concentration of cytokines within platelet-rich fibrin microstructures and investigate whether there are differences in the different portions of platelet-rich fibrin, which has implications for proper clinical use of platelet-rich fibrin gel.

Methods:: Whole blood was obtained from six New Zealand rabbits (male, 7 to 39 weeks old, weight 2.7-4 kg); it was then centrifuged for preparation of platelet-rich fibrin gels and harvest of plasma. The resultant platelet-rich fibrin gels were used for cytokine determination, histological analyses and scanning electron microscopy. All plasmas obtained were subject to the same cytokine determination assays for the purpose of comparison.

Results:: Cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 formed concentration gradients from high at the red blood cell end of the platelet-rich fibrin gel (p=1.88×10-5) to low at the plasma end (p=0.19). Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were similar at the red blood cell and plasma ends. The porosities of the platelet-rich fibrin samples taken in sequence from the red blood cell end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7%, respectively, showing a gradual decrease in the compactness of the platelet-rich fibrin network.

Conclusion:: Cytokine concentrations are positively associated with platelet-rich fibrin microstructure and portion in a rabbit model. As platelet-rich fibrin is the main entity currently used in regenerative medicine, assessing cytokine concentration and the most valuable portion of PRF gels is essential and recommended to all physicians.

No MeSH data available.


Statistics concerning the porosity of the PRF specimens shown in Figure 2 (for interpretation of the sample labelling, please refer to Figure 6a).
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f5-cln_72p116: Statistics concerning the porosity of the PRF specimens shown in Figure 2 (for interpretation of the sample labelling, please refer to Figure 6a).

Mentions: Compactness and porosity in the PRF tended to be non-uniform (Figure 4). The fibrin network (see the red area indicated by the green arrowheads) closest to the RBC layer had particularly small pores and an ultra-compact structure with many incorporated platelets (see the blue spots indicated by the white arrowheads, the PRF section observed in Figure 4a corresponds to PRF1 shown in Figure 3) and that closest to the plasma layer had larger pores and a less compact structure (the PRF section observed in Figure 4e corresponds to PRF3 shown in Figure 3, the remaining images, i.e., Figure 4b-d, correspond to PRF2 shown in Figure 3). The porosities of these PRF samples taken in sequence from the RBC end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7% (Figure 5, as illustration of sample sites shown in Figure 6a), indicating a gradual decrease in the compactness of the PRF network.


Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin
Statistics concerning the porosity of the PRF specimens shown in Figure 2 (for interpretation of the sample labelling, please refer to Figure 6a).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304401&req=5

f5-cln_72p116: Statistics concerning the porosity of the PRF specimens shown in Figure 2 (for interpretation of the sample labelling, please refer to Figure 6a).
Mentions: Compactness and porosity in the PRF tended to be non-uniform (Figure 4). The fibrin network (see the red area indicated by the green arrowheads) closest to the RBC layer had particularly small pores and an ultra-compact structure with many incorporated platelets (see the blue spots indicated by the white arrowheads, the PRF section observed in Figure 4a corresponds to PRF1 shown in Figure 3) and that closest to the plasma layer had larger pores and a less compact structure (the PRF section observed in Figure 4e corresponds to PRF3 shown in Figure 3, the remaining images, i.e., Figure 4b-d, correspond to PRF2 shown in Figure 3). The porosities of these PRF samples taken in sequence from the RBC end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7% (Figure 5, as illustration of sample sites shown in Figure 6a), indicating a gradual decrease in the compactness of the PRF network.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Objectives:: Previous reports have revealed that several cytokines (including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factors-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-1) can enhance the rate of bone formation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in orthopaedics or periodontology. This study aimed to determine the concentration of cytokines within platelet-rich fibrin microstructures and investigate whether there are differences in the different portions of platelet-rich fibrin, which has implications for proper clinical use of platelet-rich fibrin gel.

Methods:: Whole blood was obtained from six New Zealand rabbits (male, 7 to 39 weeks old, weight 2.7-4 kg); it was then centrifuged for preparation of platelet-rich fibrin gels and harvest of plasma. The resultant platelet-rich fibrin gels were used for cytokine determination, histological analyses and scanning electron microscopy. All plasmas obtained were subject to the same cytokine determination assays for the purpose of comparison.

Results:: Cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 formed concentration gradients from high at the red blood cell end of the platelet-rich fibrin gel (p=1.88×10-5) to low at the plasma end (p=0.19). Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were similar at the red blood cell and plasma ends. The porosities of the platelet-rich fibrin samples taken in sequence from the red blood cell end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7%, respectively, showing a gradual decrease in the compactness of the platelet-rich fibrin network.

Conclusion:: Cytokine concentrations are positively associated with platelet-rich fibrin microstructure and portion in a rabbit model. As platelet-rich fibrin is the main entity currently used in regenerative medicine, assessing cytokine concentration and the most valuable portion of PRF gels is essential and recommended to all physicians.

No MeSH data available.