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Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

2121222612: Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(β-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds and were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50 = 8.95 μg.mL−1), compound also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20 = 12.5 μg.mL−1). All the three bioactive compounds , , and were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (<10% mortality at 250 μM) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50 > 1000 μg.mL−1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

No MeSH data available.


Concentration-response of anti-settlement activity of the promising AF compounds 2, 6, and 12 towards plantigrades of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.*Indicates significant differences at p < 0.05 (Dunnett test) ** at p < 0.001 (Dunnett test), against the negative control (B: ultra-pure water); CuSO4 at 5 μM was used as positive control (C).
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f3: Concentration-response of anti-settlement activity of the promising AF compounds 2, 6, and 12 towards plantigrades of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.*Indicates significant differences at p < 0.05 (Dunnett test) ** at p < 0.001 (Dunnett test), against the negative control (B: ultra-pure water); CuSO4 at 5 μM was used as positive control (C).

Mentions: The concentration-response analysis using successive concentrations between 1.56–500 μM (Fig. 3) revealed that the most effective anti-settlement activity was observed for compound 12 (EC50 = 17.65 μM; 8.4 μg.mL−1), followed by compounds 2 (EC50 = 22.59 μM; 36.84 μg.mL−1) and 6 (EC50 = 23.19 μM; 31.74 μg.mL−1) (Table 1).


Antifouling potential of Nature-inspired sulfated compounds
Concentration-response of anti-settlement activity of the promising AF compounds 2, 6, and 12 towards plantigrades of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.*Indicates significant differences at p < 0.05 (Dunnett test) ** at p < 0.001 (Dunnett test), against the negative control (B: ultra-pure water); CuSO4 at 5 μM was used as positive control (C).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304334&req=5

f3: Concentration-response of anti-settlement activity of the promising AF compounds 2, 6, and 12 towards plantigrades of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.*Indicates significant differences at p < 0.05 (Dunnett test) ** at p < 0.001 (Dunnett test), against the negative control (B: ultra-pure water); CuSO4 at 5 μM was used as positive control (C).
Mentions: The concentration-response analysis using successive concentrations between 1.56–500 μM (Fig. 3) revealed that the most effective anti-settlement activity was observed for compound 12 (EC50 = 17.65 μM; 8.4 μg.mL−1), followed by compounds 2 (EC50 = 22.59 μM; 36.84 μg.mL−1) and 6 (EC50 = 23.19 μM; 31.74 μg.mL−1) (Table 1).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

2121222612: Natural products with a sulfated scaffold have emerged as antifouling agents with low or nontoxic effects to the environment. In this study 13 sulfated polyphenols were synthesized and tested for antifouling potential using the anti-settlement activity of mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) plantigrade post-larvae and bacterial growth inhibition towards four biofilm-forming bacterial strains. Results show that some of these Nature-inspired compounds were bioactive, particularly rutin persulfate (2), 3,6-bis(&beta;-D-glucopyranosyl) xanthone persulfate (6), and gallic acid persulfate (12) against the settlement of plantigrades. The chemical precursors of sulfated compounds and were also tested for anti-settlement activity and it was possible to conclude that bioactivity is associated with sulfation. While compound showed the most promising anti-settlement activity (EC50&thinsp;=&thinsp;8.95&thinsp;&mu;g.mL&minus;1), compound also caused the higher level of growth inhibition in bacteria Vibrio harveyi (EC20&thinsp;=&thinsp;12.5&thinsp;&mu;g.mL&minus;1). All the three bioactive compounds , , and were also found to be nontoxic to the non target species Artemia salina (&lt;10% mortality at 250&thinsp;&mu;M) and Vibrio fischeri (LC50&thinsp;&gt;&thinsp;1000&thinsp;&mu;g.mL&minus;1). This study put forward the relevance of synthesizing non-natural sulfated small molecules to generate new nontoxic antifouling agents.

No MeSH data available.