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Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.


Immunohistochemical findings for tissue samples after 12 weeks.The expression levels of MMPs were higher in both groups compared to the groups at 4 and 8 weeks. MMPs were highly expressed in the fibrotic area that surrounded the silk sutures (S). Interestingly, highly expressed MMPs were observed in the vicinity of the silk sutures (S) in the silk +4HR group (Bar = 50 μm).
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f5: Immunohistochemical findings for tissue samples after 12 weeks.The expression levels of MMPs were higher in both groups compared to the groups at 4 and 8 weeks. MMPs were highly expressed in the fibrotic area that surrounded the silk sutures (S). Interestingly, highly expressed MMPs were observed in the vicinity of the silk sutures (S) in the silk +4HR group (Bar = 50 μm).

Mentions: In a histological examination of 12-week samples, 5 of 9 samples of 4HR-treated silk suture samples showed almost complete degradation of the graft, and only a small amount of the materials was observed [Supplementary Fig. S5]. However, the silk suture group showed less degradation. In an immunohistochemical analysis, the suture material remaining in the samples from the 4HR-treated silk suture group showed higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 than the silk suture group [Fig. 5]. Strong MMP expression was observed adjacent to the residual grafts. The untreated silk group also showed elevated expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 compared to the 4-week and 8-week samples. However, the expression of MMPs was mainly observed in capsular fibrotic tissue. Upon comparing the relative intensity of immunostaining, the expression of MMPs in the 4HR-treated silk suture group was higher than that in the untreated silk suture group [Supplementary Fig. S6].


Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol
Immunohistochemical findings for tissue samples after 12 weeks.The expression levels of MMPs were higher in both groups compared to the groups at 4 and 8 weeks. MMPs were highly expressed in the fibrotic area that surrounded the silk sutures (S). Interestingly, highly expressed MMPs were observed in the vicinity of the silk sutures (S) in the silk +4HR group (Bar = 50 μm).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304327&req=5

f5: Immunohistochemical findings for tissue samples after 12 weeks.The expression levels of MMPs were higher in both groups compared to the groups at 4 and 8 weeks. MMPs were highly expressed in the fibrotic area that surrounded the silk sutures (S). Interestingly, highly expressed MMPs were observed in the vicinity of the silk sutures (S) in the silk +4HR group (Bar = 50 μm).
Mentions: In a histological examination of 12-week samples, 5 of 9 samples of 4HR-treated silk suture samples showed almost complete degradation of the graft, and only a small amount of the materials was observed [Supplementary Fig. S5]. However, the silk suture group showed less degradation. In an immunohistochemical analysis, the suture material remaining in the samples from the 4HR-treated silk suture group showed higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 than the silk suture group [Fig. 5]. Strong MMP expression was observed adjacent to the residual grafts. The untreated silk group also showed elevated expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 compared to the 4-week and 8-week samples. However, the expression of MMPs was mainly observed in capsular fibrotic tissue. Upon comparing the relative intensity of immunostaining, the expression of MMPs in the 4HR-treated silk suture group was higher than that in the untreated silk suture group [Supplementary Fig. S6].

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.