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Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.


The results of the in vivo testing.(a) Serial images of ultrasonography. (b) The relative dimensions of the silk suture grafts were measured by ultrasonography. The dimension of the grafts at implantation was set to 100. Compared to the untreated silk group, the 4HR-silk group showed significantly smaller residual grafts at 9 and 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05). For polyglactin 910, the residual graft was significantly smaller than the untreated silk group 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05).
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f4: The results of the in vivo testing.(a) Serial images of ultrasonography. (b) The relative dimensions of the silk suture grafts were measured by ultrasonography. The dimension of the grafts at implantation was set to 100. Compared to the untreated silk group, the 4HR-silk group showed significantly smaller residual grafts at 9 and 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05). For polyglactin 910, the residual graft was significantly smaller than the untreated silk group 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05).

Mentions: In this study, 4HR was administered to RAW264.7 cells, which is a cell line of murine macrophages, and a higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 were observed compared to the untreated controls [Fig. 3]. Silk sutures, 4HR-treated silk sutures, and polyglactin 910 sutures were implanted under the skin of rats. Polyglactin 910, which is more commonly known as Vicryl®, is one of the most widely used bio-degradable suture materials. When assessed by ultra-sonography, both the 4HR-treated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 exhibited a gradual volume loss of grafts until 11 weeks after implantation [Fig. 4]. The results of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the expression of MMPs was not high in 4-week and 8-week samples for both the untreated silk and 4HR-treated silk groups [Supplementary Figs S3 and S4]. Interestingly, volume loss appeared to be faster starting 9 weeks after implantation according to sonography [Fig. 4]. The difference between the groups started to become significant after 9 weeks (P < 0.05).


Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol
The results of the in vivo testing.(a) Serial images of ultrasonography. (b) The relative dimensions of the silk suture grafts were measured by ultrasonography. The dimension of the grafts at implantation was set to 100. Compared to the untreated silk group, the 4HR-silk group showed significantly smaller residual grafts at 9 and 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05). For polyglactin 910, the residual graft was significantly smaller than the untreated silk group 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304327&req=5

f4: The results of the in vivo testing.(a) Serial images of ultrasonography. (b) The relative dimensions of the silk suture grafts were measured by ultrasonography. The dimension of the grafts at implantation was set to 100. Compared to the untreated silk group, the 4HR-silk group showed significantly smaller residual grafts at 9 and 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05). For polyglactin 910, the residual graft was significantly smaller than the untreated silk group 11 weeks after surgery (*P < 0.05).
Mentions: In this study, 4HR was administered to RAW264.7 cells, which is a cell line of murine macrophages, and a higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 were observed compared to the untreated controls [Fig. 3]. Silk sutures, 4HR-treated silk sutures, and polyglactin 910 sutures were implanted under the skin of rats. Polyglactin 910, which is more commonly known as Vicryl®, is one of the most widely used bio-degradable suture materials. When assessed by ultra-sonography, both the 4HR-treated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 exhibited a gradual volume loss of grafts until 11 weeks after implantation [Fig. 4]. The results of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the expression of MMPs was not high in 4-week and 8-week samples for both the untreated silk and 4HR-treated silk groups [Supplementary Figs S3 and S4]. Interestingly, volume loss appeared to be faster starting 9 weeks after implantation according to sonography [Fig. 4]. The difference between the groups started to become significant after 9 weeks (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.