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Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol

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ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.


The results of the western blot.(a) 4HR increased the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in RAW264.7 cells. The expression levels gradually increased for 24 h after 4HR administration. The relative expression levels of MMP-2 (b), -3 (c), and -9 (d) in 4HR-treated groups (*P < 0.05 compared to untreated controls).
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f3: The results of the western blot.(a) 4HR increased the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in RAW264.7 cells. The expression levels gradually increased for 24 h after 4HR administration. The relative expression levels of MMP-2 (b), -3 (c), and -9 (d) in 4HR-treated groups (*P < 0.05 compared to untreated controls).

Mentions: In this study, 4HR was administered to RAW264.7 cells, which is a cell line of murine macrophages, and a higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 were observed compared to the untreated controls [Fig. 3]. Silk sutures, 4HR-treated silk sutures, and polyglactin 910 sutures were implanted under the skin of rats. Polyglactin 910, which is more commonly known as Vicryl®, is one of the most widely used bio-degradable suture materials. When assessed by ultra-sonography, both the 4HR-treated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 exhibited a gradual volume loss of grafts until 11 weeks after implantation [Fig. 4]. The results of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the expression of MMPs was not high in 4-week and 8-week samples for both the untreated silk and 4HR-treated silk groups [Supplementary Figs S3 and S4]. Interestingly, volume loss appeared to be faster starting 9 weeks after implantation according to sonography [Fig. 4]. The difference between the groups started to become significant after 9 weeks (P < 0.05).


Accelerated biodegradation of silk sutures through matrix metalloproteinase activation by incorporating 4-hexylresorcinol
The results of the western blot.(a) 4HR increased the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in RAW264.7 cells. The expression levels gradually increased for 24 h after 4HR administration. The relative expression levels of MMP-2 (b), -3 (c), and -9 (d) in 4HR-treated groups (*P < 0.05 compared to untreated controls).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304327&req=5

f3: The results of the western blot.(a) 4HR increased the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in RAW264.7 cells. The expression levels gradually increased for 24 h after 4HR administration. The relative expression levels of MMP-2 (b), -3 (c), and -9 (d) in 4HR-treated groups (*P < 0.05 compared to untreated controls).
Mentions: In this study, 4HR was administered to RAW264.7 cells, which is a cell line of murine macrophages, and a higher expression levels of MMP-2, -3, and -9 were observed compared to the untreated controls [Fig. 3]. Silk sutures, 4HR-treated silk sutures, and polyglactin 910 sutures were implanted under the skin of rats. Polyglactin 910, which is more commonly known as Vicryl®, is one of the most widely used bio-degradable suture materials. When assessed by ultra-sonography, both the 4HR-treated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 exhibited a gradual volume loss of grafts until 11 weeks after implantation [Fig. 4]. The results of immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that the expression of MMPs was not high in 4-week and 8-week samples for both the untreated silk and 4HR-treated silk groups [Supplementary Figs S3 and S4]. Interestingly, volume loss appeared to be faster starting 9 weeks after implantation according to sonography [Fig. 4]. The difference between the groups started to become significant after 9 weeks (P < 0.05).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Silk suture material is primarily composed of silk fibroin and regarded as a non-resorbable material. It is slowly degraded by proteolysis when it is implanted into the body. 4-Hexylresorcinol (4HR) is a well-known antiseptic. In this study, the biodegradability of 4HR-incorporated silk sutures were compared to that of untreated silk sutures and polyglactin 910 sutures, a commercially available resorbable suture. 4HR-incorporated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) can digest a wide spectrum of proteins. 4HR increased MMP-2, -3, and -9 expression in RAW264.7 cells. MMP-2, -3, and -9 were able to digest not only silk fibroin but also silk sutures. Consequently, 59.5% of the 4HR-incorporated silk suture material remained at 11 weeks after grafting, which was similar to that of polyglactin 910 degradation (56.4% remained). The residual amount of bare silk suture material at 11 weeks after grafting was 91.5%. The expression levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 were high in the 4HR-incorporated silk suture-implanted site 12 weeks after implantation. In conclusion, 4HR-treated silk sutures exhibited anti-microbial properties and a similar level of bio-degradation to polyglactin 910 sutures and induced higher expression of MMP-2, -3, and -9 in macrophages.

No MeSH data available.