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A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Displays of anxiety in table tennis were assessed through subjective (a self-report questionnaire), physiological (heart-rate variability) and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Anxiety manipulation was achieved through the introduction of a national standard table tennis player, known to the participants, to receive serves in the high-anxiety condition, whilst serves were received by no opponent in the low-anxiety condition. Automated motion capture systems consisting of high-speed 3D motion cameras and analytical software (QUALISYS) determined the subject’s movement kinematics: bat face angle (degrees) and serve routine duration (s). Self-reported state anxiety (MRF-Likert) and heart rate measurements were collected to examine changes between conditions. Contrary to the hypothesis, bat face angles did not change significantly between anxiety conditions (F (1.8) = 2.791, p = 0.133) and movement times were faster in the high-anxiety condition. In light of these findings, research into other facets of movement behaviour must be analysed to gain further understanding of the effects of anxiety on performance, which remain unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Subject A bat angles (y-axis) in low and high anxiety conditions. Ball impact when t = 0
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j_hukin-2017-0008_fig_005b: Subject A bat angles (y-axis) in low and high anxiety conditions. Ball impact when t = 0

Mentions: Contrary to the hypothesis, bat angles at ball impact did not change between high and low anxiety conditions as shown by the traces in Figure 5. In three axes, the participant’s bats followed a similar pattern and the face angles were consistent throughout the service motions. These results conflict with changes in movement kinematics found in golf putting anxiety (Cooke et al., 2010; Marquardt, 2009; Maxwell et al., 2003). However Mullen and Hardy’s (2000) two-dimensional kinematic analysis showed no changes in club and arm movements under pressure. In a high working memory table tennis task, Williams et al. (2002) reported changes in visual search behaviours, but not movement kinematics. Perhaps the increased variability of the face angles in golf compared to table tennis could relate to the contrasting distance between the hand(s) and the contact point on the putter or the bat.


A Multidisciplinary Investigation of the Effects of Competitive State Anxiety on Serve Kinematics in Table Tennis
Subject A bat angles (y-axis) in low and high anxiety conditions. Ball impact when t = 0
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC5304277&req=5

j_hukin-2017-0008_fig_005b: Subject A bat angles (y-axis) in low and high anxiety conditions. Ball impact when t = 0
Mentions: Contrary to the hypothesis, bat angles at ball impact did not change between high and low anxiety conditions as shown by the traces in Figure 5. In three axes, the participant’s bats followed a similar pattern and the face angles were consistent throughout the service motions. These results conflict with changes in movement kinematics found in golf putting anxiety (Cooke et al., 2010; Marquardt, 2009; Maxwell et al., 2003). However Mullen and Hardy’s (2000) two-dimensional kinematic analysis showed no changes in club and arm movements under pressure. In a high working memory table tennis task, Williams et al. (2002) reported changes in visual search behaviours, but not movement kinematics. Perhaps the increased variability of the face angles in golf compared to table tennis could relate to the contrasting distance between the hand(s) and the contact point on the putter or the bat.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

ABSTRACT

Displays of anxiety in table tennis were assessed through subjective (a self-report questionnaire), physiological (heart-rate variability) and kinematic variables. Using a within-group crossover design, 9 university-level table tennis players completed a series of serves under low- and high-anxiety conditions. Anxiety manipulation was achieved through the introduction of a national standard table tennis player, known to the participants, to receive serves in the high-anxiety condition, whilst serves were received by no opponent in the low-anxiety condition. Automated motion capture systems consisting of high-speed 3D motion cameras and analytical software (QUALISYS) determined the subject’s movement kinematics: bat face angle (degrees) and serve routine duration (s). Self-reported state anxiety (MRF-Likert) and heart rate measurements were collected to examine changes between conditions. Contrary to the hypothesis, bat face angles did not change significantly between anxiety conditions (F (1.8) = 2.791, p = 0.133) and movement times were faster in the high-anxiety condition. In light of these findings, research into other facets of movement behaviour must be analysed to gain further understanding of the effects of anxiety on performance, which remain unclear.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus